For most (66/70) isolates, inactivation was caused by insertion sequences
(IS), including 45 IS481F insertions (F/R denotes insertion orientation relative to prn), 17 IS481R insertions, and 4 IS1002R insertions (Table).
The OXA types have weak hydrolytic properties, but their genes are usually associated with genetic elements, such as insertion sequences
(ISs), able to increase the expression of carbapenemases and also mobilize the genes (7,9).
Abnormal dinucleotide and codon usage bias was tested using the software IslandViewer , while insertion sequences
were identified using the software ISfinder .
(b) Porin lesion type: + and - indicate the position upstream and downstream of start codon; numbers between parentheses correspond the nucleotide insertion position; ISn indicate the mutation in the promoter region and presence of insertion sequences
Seven expressed stop codons that truncated the protein, and four expressed insertion sequences
that disrupted the pertactin coding region.
Occurrence and stability of insertion sequences
in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: evaluation of an insertion sequence-dependent DNA polymorphism as a tool in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.
The identities between these insertion sequences
are relatively low, but they might appear after divergence from both of the zooxanthellate cardiids and tridacnids.
Rapid dissemination of [beta]-lactamases also involves mobile elements like insertion sequences
After removing the insertion sequences
at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage sites from HPAI viruses, we concatenated all available whole-genome sequences and analyzed them by using the median-joining method implemented by NETWORK version 5.0 (online Technical Appendix) (3).
Recently, their mobilization through various insertion sequences
and transposons have also been reported.
In Sd197, this region is flanked by integrases and insertion sequences
. Other open reading frames homologous to those of Shigella spp.
PCR was used to detect [bla.sub.CTX-M-14] and insertion sequences
ISEcp1 and IS903 as described (24-26).