Evolution of parasitism among closely related species: phylogenetic relationship and the origin of inquilinism in gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).
Biology of Rhoophilus loewi (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Cynipidae), with implications for the evolution of inquilinism in gall wasps.
Parameters used to differentiate interactions of inquilinism, cecidophagy, and kleptoparasitism of galls, as compiled from the literature.
Even if the figitoid inquilines were considered, it is clear that inquilinism has not evolved many times among cynipids.
Even though the origin of cynipid inquilinism appears to be a unique historical event, it is tempting to speculate about possible adaptive mechanisms involved.
An alternative model for the origin of cynipid inquilinism is that it evolved from mutualistic communal oviposition behavior.
Workerless inquilinism has evolved in species with both obligately and facultatively sterile workers (Table 1A).
In summary, the prediction that workerless inquilinism can evolve in both obligately and facultatively sterile taxa seems well supported and the prediction of a correlation between worker fertility and a robust worker caste is also supported, with the possible exception of Strongylognathus.
However, inquilinism will not be as severely restricted by seasonality.
Prediction 5: Inquiline Population Size.--The evolution of inquilinism may increase the fitness of individual larvae at the expense of overall colony fitness.
That a substantial number of inquilines exist suggests that the evolution of inquilinism may be a relatively common event.