New positive inotropic agents
with higher safety margins and stronger effects on cardiac contractility have been introduced in human and veterinary cardiology during the last 20 years (3) and their use must be explored in the avian patient.
10] Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores,  the presence of bowel sounds and co-administration of sedatives and inotropic agents
were documented on enrolment.
For cardiologists, internists, and others, specialists from the US, India, and Guatemala emphasize advances in the understanding of coronary circulation, the molecular mechanisms of myocyte function, and the assessment of regional and global ventricular functions in physiologic and pathologic conditions, and address advances in cardiovascular pharmacology, including the advantages and disadvantages of diuretic therapy, vasodilators, neurohormone modulators, positive inotropic agents
, and antilipid, antithrombotic, and antiplatelet agents, and their clinical pharmacology in the management of various cardiovascular disorders.
Conventional inotropic agents
utilized in HF are beta-agonists (dobutamine, dopamine) and phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors.
5) For those persons with advanced HF or ADHF, tailored therapy often includes the addition of positive inotropic agents
such as dobutamine.
Arrhythmogenic potential of positive inotropic agents
If hypotension occurs, treat initially by slowing the infusion; additional standard therapy may be needed, including the following: vasopressor drugs, positive inotropic agents
, and volume expansion.
The need for inotropic agents
to support blood pressure or organ perfusion bodes a poor prognosis, and their use is not recommended routinely.
Current inotropic agents
, such as beta-adrenergic receptor agonists or inhibitors of phosphodiesterase activity, increase cardiac cell contractility by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium, which further activates the cardiac sarcomere.
Compared with a fentanyl-enflurane based anaesthetic, in a study of 78 adult patients, the propofol-ketamine group had less need for inotropic agents
following cardiopulmonary bypass, a shorter time to tracheal extubation and a reduced incidence of myocardial ischaemia and infarction.
These drugs, known as inotropic agents
, make the heart beat harder.
4 percent), bronchodilators (albuterol), inotropic agents
(dopamine), and anticoagulants (heparin).