Of these, 2 had myocardial dysfunction and required multiple inotropic agents
and renal replacement therapy.
Specifically, immediate and intensive treatment with colloidal fluid resuscitation, inotropic agents
, adequate alimental support, and mechanical ventilation is indispensable for a favorable outcome, if needed .
New positive inotropic agents
with higher safety margins and stronger effects on cardiac contractility have been introduced in human and veterinary cardiology during the last 20 years (3) and their use must be explored in the avian patient.
Conventional inotropic agents
utilized in HF are beta-agonists (dobutamine, dopamine) and phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors.
Diuretics and nitroglycerine are used for preload reduction, digoxin as inotropic agent
, and heparin prophylaxis for maintaining anticoagulation and to avoid the risk of thromboembolism.
Blood components therapy and inotropic agent
infusion were prescribed for the acute illness.
Objective: Levosimendan is a relatively new inotropic agent
. Unlike other inotropic agents
, Levosimendan does not increase cellular calcium intake, so that, does not cause intracellular calcium overload and related arrhythmias.
* A unique inotropic agent
. Levosimendan's mechanism of action differs from that of other inotropes, such as dobutamine and milrinone.
Digitalis (17.18%) was the most frequently used inotropic agent
administered to the patients with AHF.
Ephedrine (0.2 mg/kg) was used as the inotropic agent
and esmolol (1 mg/ kg) as the beta blocker.
Following admission, he was treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy (imipenem 500 mg every 6 h, teicoplanin 400 mg every 12 h, and vancomycin 1000 mg every 12 h), fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and inotropic agent
. Two days after the initiation of antibiotic therapy and platelet transfusion, surgery was scheduled because of the patient's lack of clinical improvement and the persistence of low-grade fever and general signs of inflammation on laboratory studies.
Levosimendan, a new inotropic agent
with novel cardioprotective effects, is emerging as a therapeutic option for both intraoperative cardiac support as well as organ protection.