inorganic acid


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acid

 [as´id]
1. sour.
2. a substance that yields hydrogen ions in solution and from which hydrogen may be displaced by a metal to form a salt. For the various acids, see under the specific name, such as acetic acid. All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). Other properties of acids include a sour taste and the ability to cause certain dyes to undergo a color change. A common example of this is the ability of acids to change litmus paper from blue to red.

Inorganic acids are distinguished as binary or hydracids, and ternary or oxyacids; the former contain no oxygen; in the latter, the hydrogen is united to an electronegative element by oxygen. The hydracids are distinguished by the prefix hydro-. The names of acids end in -ic, except in the case in which there are two degrees of oxygenation. The acid containing the greater amount of oxygen has the termination -ic, the one having the lesser amount has the termination -ous. Acids with the termination -ic form the salts ending in -ate; those ending in -ous form the salts ending in -ite. The salts of hydracids end in -ide. These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sulfurous acid (H2SO3), sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). Acids are called monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, and tetrabasic, respectively, when they contain one, two, three, or four replaceable hydrogen atoms.

The most common organic acids are carboxylic acids, containing the carboxyl group (-COOH); examples are acetic acid, citric acid, amino acids, and fatty acids. Their salts and esters end in -ate, e.g., ethyl acetate. Other organic acids are phenols and sulfonic acids.

Acids play a vital role in the chemical processes that are a normal part of the functions of the cells and tissues of the body. A stable balance between acids and bases in the body is essential to life. See also acid-base balance.
acid elution test air-dried blood smears are fixed in 80 per cent methanol and immersed in a pH 3.3 buffer; all hemoglobins are eluted except fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is seen in red blood cells after staining.
inorganic acid an acid containing no carbon atoms.
acid perfusion test Bernstein test.
acid phosphatase a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. Serum activity of the prostatic isoenzyme is greatly increased in metastatic cancer of the prostate and is used to monitor the course of the disease.

in·or·gan·ic ac·id

an acid made up of molecules not containing organic radicals; for example, HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4.

inorganic acid

a compound containing no carbon that is composed of hydrogen and one or more electronegative elements, such as chlorine. An example is hydrochloric acid.

in·or·gan·ic ac·id

(in'ōr-gan'ik as'id)
An acid made up of molecules not containing organic radicals.

acid

1. sour.
2. a molecule or ion with a tendency to give up a proton to the solvent according to Bronsted and Lowry theory.
All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). Other properties of acids include a sour taste and the ability to cause certain dyes to undergo a color change. A common example of this is the ability of acids to change litmus paper from blue to red.
Acids play a vital role in the chemical processes that are a normal part of the functions of the cells and tissues of the body. A stable balance between acids and bases in the body is essential to life. See also acidic, acid-base balance, and individual acids.

amino acid
any one of a class of organic compounds containing the amino and the carboxyl group, occurring naturally in plant and animal tissues and forming the chief constituents of protein. See also amino acid.
bile a's
steroid acids derived from cholesterol. See also bile acids.
acid excretion
blood buffers prevent a sudden change in pH of body fluids when they receive excess acid or alkali from absorption or metabolic processes. This temporary measure is supplemented by a mechanism for the excretion of hydrogen ions via the kidney in the form of dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium ions.
fatty acid
any monobasic aliphatic acid containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. See also fatty acids.
acid hydrolases
major group of enzymes present in lysosomes.
inorganic acid
an acid containing no carbon atoms.
keto a's
compounds containing the groups CO (carbonyl) and COOH (carboxyl).
acid methyl green stain
stains protozoal nuclei a bright green and is recommended for the detection of Balantidium coli in fecal smears.
nucleic a's
substances that constitute the prosthetic groups of the nucleoproteins and contain phosphoric acid, sugars, and purine and pyrimidine bases. See also nucleic acids.
acid phosphatase
see acid phosphatase.
acid retention
retention of metabolic acids, including sulfates and phosphates, as a result of acute and chronic renal disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
The effects of supplementing weanling pig diets with organic and inorganic acids on growth performance and microbial shedding.
A new report by international market research consultancy Frost & Sullivan estimates the European market for bulk inorganic acids to have been worth US$10.
Figure 6 shows the temperature dependent conductivity of polyanilines doped with different inorganic acids.
The application of weak organic acids as an acidulant for pressure-processed foods may be advantageous in terms of their microbial destruction capabilities, when compared to strong inorganic acids.
This guide to assigning a name and formula to an inorganic substance introduces the compositional, substitutive, and additive systems of nomenclature, and applies them to inorganic acids and derivatives, coordination compounds, and solids.
Inorganic acids such as phosphoric acid which are added to the liquid soap during processing or immediately before drying are often used as neutralizing agents.
Altro Floors of Works Road, Letchworth, Hertfordshire, tel:0146 248 0480 tell us all these flooring products have great resistance to attack from a wide range of potentially harmful chemicals, including both organic and inorganic acids, alkalis and solvents.
Esters of cellulose and simple inorganic acids, such as nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric, are well known, but there are other acids also used in cellulose esterification.
Esters of Inorganic Acids of Non-metals (Excluding Esters of Hydrogen Halides): European Union Market Outlook 2010 and Forecast till 2015
The ingredients used in feed acids are inorganic acids, amino acids, monoanddiglycerides, antioxidants, glycerin, saccharides, probiotics and protein.
Scientists determined the impact of weak organic and strong inorganic acids on microbial inactivation during high-pressure processing.