inorganic acid


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acid

 [as´id]
1. sour.
2. a substance that yields hydrogen ions in solution and from which hydrogen may be displaced by a metal to form a salt. For the various acids, see under the specific name, such as acetic acid. All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). Other properties of acids include a sour taste and the ability to cause certain dyes to undergo a color change. A common example of this is the ability of acids to change litmus paper from blue to red.

Inorganic acids are distinguished as binary or hydracids, and ternary or oxyacids; the former contain no oxygen; in the latter, the hydrogen is united to an electronegative element by oxygen. The hydracids are distinguished by the prefix hydro-. The names of acids end in -ic, except in the case in which there are two degrees of oxygenation. The acid containing the greater amount of oxygen has the termination -ic, the one having the lesser amount has the termination -ous. Acids with the termination -ic form the salts ending in -ate; those ending in -ous form the salts ending in -ite. The salts of hydracids end in -ide. These rules are demonstrated by the acids and salts: hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), sulfurous acid (H2SO3), sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). Acids are called monobasic, dibasic, tribasic, and tetrabasic, respectively, when they contain one, two, three, or four replaceable hydrogen atoms.

The most common organic acids are carboxylic acids, containing the carboxyl group (-COOH); examples are acetic acid, citric acid, amino acids, and fatty acids. Their salts and esters end in -ate, e.g., ethyl acetate. Other organic acids are phenols and sulfonic acids.

Acids play a vital role in the chemical processes that are a normal part of the functions of the cells and tissues of the body. A stable balance between acids and bases in the body is essential to life. See also acid-base balance.
acid elution test air-dried blood smears are fixed in 80 per cent methanol and immersed in a pH 3.3 buffer; all hemoglobins are eluted except fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is seen in red blood cells after staining.
inorganic acid an acid containing no carbon atoms.
acid perfusion test Bernstein test.
acid phosphatase a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. Serum activity of the prostatic isoenzyme is greatly increased in metastatic cancer of the prostate and is used to monitor the course of the disease.

in·or·gan·ic ac·id

an acid made up of molecules not containing organic radicals; for example, HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4.

in·or·gan·ic ac·id

(in'ōr-gan'ik as'id)
An acid made up of molecules not containing organic radicals.
References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, inorganic acids can reduce the palatability of feed and destroy the electrolyte balance, resulting in severe depression of growth (Easter, 1993).
In this article, PANI nanofibers were prepared in four kinds of common inorganic acids by direct mixed oxidation method at room temperature.
Figure 6 shows the temperature dependent conductivity of polyanilines doped with different inorganic acids. From the figure it is observed that the increase of conductivity with temperature seems to be significant for one sample only, polyaniline doped with [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4].
Hydrogen sulfide was present in seven of 10 samples, one or more inorganic acids in all 27 samples, mercury in five of 16 samples, and one or more VOCs in 14 of 76 samples; all concentrations were below applicable NIOSH and OSHA exposure limits except for two benzene concentrations (0.4 mg/[m.sup.3] and 0.5 mg/[m.sup.3]) that exceeded the REL of 0.3 mg/[m.sup.3] (1).
Epotuf 37-701 has been designed to produce systems with excellent chemical resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic acids when used with bis-A epoxy, bis-F epoxy, or multifunctional epoxy resin blends.
Other inorganic acids such as nitric, gluconic and sulfamic can be effective on beerstone and are less harmful to stainless steel, especially when corrosion inhibitors are incorporated into the formula.
At first investigators attempted to remove the inorganic mineral part by using chemical reagents, and some researchers showed that it could be removed from oil shale at a certain concentration of different inorganic acids [9, 10].
International Paint Protective Coatings has introduced Ceilcoate 600HB Flakeline, a two-component, high build, glass flake reinforced epoxy system that provides improved chemical resistance to alkalis, inorganic acids and many aromatic and aliphatic solvents.
Said to be almost universally resistant against all chemicals, FFKM can be applied in the critical environments of organic and inorganic acids, alkaline substances, ester, alcohol, fuel and hot water, according to the company.
The application of weak organic acids as an acidulant for pressure-processed foods may be advantageous in terms of their microbial destruction capabilities, when compared to strong inorganic acids.
This guide to assigning a name and formula to an inorganic substance introduces the compositional, substitutive, and additive systems of nomenclature, and applies them to inorganic acids and derivatives, coordination compounds, and solids.