A variety of pathological conditions ranging from inflammation to neoplasia can cause irritation of these sensory nerves and cause pain radiating to the ear by virtue of their shared sensory innervation
. The national literature on this particular subject is scarce and majority of the studies are focused on the aetiology of primary otogenic pain.
Anatomical study of pronator teres muscle innervation
and clinical significance in nerve transfer.
Standard immunofluorescence with tyramide signal amplification staining for innervation
of eccrine sweat glands
In our case, the local anesthetic was injected in a cephaloposterior position to target mainly the posterior and lateral cords that provide innervation
to the shoulder joint.
As the exact role of cervical nerve innervation
of the trapezius muscle is still unclear, the nerves should be preserved whenever possible .
In this respect, however, it has been suggested that MIBG assesses specifically the sympathetic innervation
of the heart whereas heart rate variability indices are better markers of systemic autonomic function [35, 39].
Caption: FIGURE 1: Diagram demonstrating the sympathetic innervation
to the face with possible lesion sites.
The LF of both rodents and humans displays a dense innervation
with nociceptive afferents.
Furthermore, the maturation of reinnervation of the regenerated HCs and the function of the reformed ribbon synapse remain open to question, such as the contact between stereocilium and tectorial membrane, reorganization of the innervation
of afferent Type I and Type II spiral ganglion neuron, and the integral interplay of outer hair cell based cochlear amplification.
to the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor digiti minimi (EDM), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), and extensor indicis proprius (EIP) follows as the PIN gives off its most distal motor branch on average 11.5 cm proximal to the radial styloid.
of skin and sweat glands in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.