APCs may be cells from the innate immune system
such as dendritic cells and macrophages, or components of the adaptive response such as B cells.
One of the important molecules in the innate immune system
that is involved in the first defense mechanism before antibody production is Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) .
In the studies led by Kanneganti, Kuriakose and colleagues first sought to identify the specific machinery that the innate immune system
uses to induce cell suicide.
The innate immune system
responds to infection or irritation with inflammation via chemical factors released by injured cells.
The adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is more of an antigen-specific response, triggered only when the innate immune system
has failed to overwhelm the infection.
Responses of the innate immune system
to acute or persistent infection or injury typically manifest as inflammation.
(26,27) Normally, both branches of the immune system work closely together, with the innate immune system
taking the initial lead in defending the body against infection.
- What potential does the innate immune system
hold for treating inflammatory diseases?
The dying and dead cell often release intracellular contents that are not usually exposed to immune systems such as ATP, uric acid, heat shock proteins, high mobility group of proteins, nucleic acid, and many others [17-21] which may act as ligands for pattern recognition receptors on the cell surface of innate immune system
and adjacent cells causing activation of those cells.
The opening chapters of this collection describe antimicrobial peptides as effectors in innate skin defense, the role of mucins in the innate immune system
, natural killer cell function, toll-like receptors, macrophage activation during ocular inflammation, and TNF for the control of tuberculosis infection.Later topics of the 19 papers focus on the role the innate immune system
plays in dry eye disease, herpes simplex virus, glaucoma, uveitis, macular degeneration, and corneal transplantation.
Jackson, PhD, and colleagues explain that the body's so-called innate immune system
forms a first-line defense system against respiratory diseases such as influenza A, which causes up to one billion infections and 500,000 deaths worldwide during seasonal epidemics.
If these are subverted, the interactions of invasive pathogens with various types of pathogen recognition receptors on epithelial cells and resident cells of the innate immune system
, especially macrophages, initiate a localised inflammatory response characterised by an early influx of blood neutrophils.