In the first type, fuel injection mass is considered as the sole control variable and main disturbance is the change of electromagnetic resistance force.
In the second type, electromagnetic resistance force is the sole control variable and the main disturbance is the uncertainty of combustion process and fuel injection mass. Shigeaki Goto et al.
In the third type, fuel injection mass and electromagnetic resistance force are both considered as the control variables.
The fluctuation of in-cylinder pressure caused by the uncertainty of combustion process and fuel injection mass is the main disturbance.
The region of the injector characteristic on-time mass is non-linear and sensitive at low injection masses. When the pilot injection mass is too small, autoignition is not triggered, necessitating injection of the pilot using a detection method other than HR.
For 6mg/st pilot injection mass, there is no autoignition for most of the cycles regardless of the rail pressure.
This may be due to a smaller injection mass than the commanded 10mg/st for the injector in Cylinder 3, but would need to be confirmed by re-calibrating the injector.
The injection mass
was kept constant at every, operation point and the first step when evaluating the results was to examine whether the specified torques could be achieved at full load.
Characteristics Unit Value Speed Rpm 1200 IMEP Bar 10 Intake manifold pressure Bar 1.6 Equivalence ratio - 0.82 Injection pressure Bar 600 Pilot injection duration ([DSE.sup.1]) [mu]s 275 Pilot injection phasing ([SSE.sup.2]) CAD 348 Pilot injection mass
Mg 1.8 Main injection duration ([DSE.sup.1]) [mu]s 1800 Main injection phasing ([SSE.sup.2]) CAD 358 Main injection mass
Mg 39.4 Simulated EGR rate ([N.sub.2]) %mass 15 Equivalent real EGR rate %mass 18 Table 5.
Comprehensively optimized designs make it possible to measure MWs as low as 200 Da and/or reduce injection masses
down to 100 ng Malvern Instruments, Ltd.
Its sensitive light scattering detector can accurately measure molecular weights as low as 200Da or injection masses