Beneath the heart; below the level of the heart.
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The smallest successful arterial switch operation (a very complex surgery) they have done is on a newborn baby weighing only 1.6 kg; the earliest surgery on a baby just five hours old having obstructive Infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (another complex congenital heart condition).
Neonate with infracardiac TAPVC underwent surgery and expired in immediate post operative period.
The incidence of TAPVR ranges from 0.6 to 1.2 per 10,000 live births, and is the fifth most common cause of CHD.1,2 TAPVR is categorized as supracardiac, cardiac, infracardiac, or mixed forms.3 Surgical outcomes depend upon the anatomical type of TAPVR and presence or absence of obstruction to the drainage of these anomalous veins.
Echocardiography is an excellent diagnostic modality, but challenges may be seen in cases with mixed or infracardiac variety, identification of obstruction and in TAPVR associated with heterotaxy syndrome or right atrial isomerism.6-8 In neonates with respiratory distress, especially those on high-frequency oscillation mode of ventilation, poor acoustic windows, spatial resolution and the subjective interpretation of the operator are additional factors limiting accurate echocardiographic diagnosis.
After more tests, Alex was diagnosed with a rare condition called Infracardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return and wheeled into the operating theatre.
The presence of infracardiac air confirms the diagnosis, at least in the absence of bilateral tension or central pneumothorax.
Recognising pulmonary venous congestion without cardiac enlargement is a difficult radiological assessment but, when recognised, the diagnosis of infracardiac TAPVD can be strongly suggested.
17 open-heart surgery in Portland to correct a condition known as infracardiac total anomalus pulmonary venous return - in which the heart's pulmonary veins are connected to the wrong side of the heart - plans to assist Bove during the operation, Rice says.
With type III, the site being infracardiac (15%), connection occurs to the portal vein, venous duct, or inferior vena cava below the diaphragm.
A diagnosis of infracardiac type TAPVC was established, to confirm the diagnosis and to exclude the possibility of mixed type TAPVC, catheter-angiography was performed.
Even more specifically, these features depend on a host of others: fetalized pattern of arterial ramification, broad thorax, retention of the five-rayed hand, retention of thick-vertebrae, long lower limbs, no infracardiac lobe, retention of cranial flexure and central position of the foramen magnum, retention of the fetal foot form, large forebrain, protracted childhood, retention of a longer neck, deep location of the larynx, retention of the flat facial skull, retention of dimensions of first dentition, etc.
The persisting pneumatoenteric recess and the infracardiac bursa: Possible role in the pathogenesis of right hydrothorax complicating peritoneal dialysis.