Second, the physical interactions (and their corresponding particles) seem to be the most basic medium for transmitting information as well as energy--though physicists and philosophers still speculate about the possibility of superluminal or instantaneous information.
Third, the ultimate source and very essence of energy still lacks scientific explanation, and something similar is true with regard to information. A recent insight of physics holds that the total energy in the cosmos is zero.
the "onion model of reality" suggested in Mattessich (1991a)--one discovers emergent properties that give rise to different kinds of information on each level.
A major feature of nonenforcing information (in contrast to enforcing information) is its influence on the intentions and expectations of the individual, be it a human being or an animal.
However, alongside the information for predictive purposes there exists information for contractual purposes as well as for retrospective uses (such as historical and learning purposes).
In genetic biology, however, the emphasis is on the transmission of genetic information, on the "syntactical" as well as on the "semantic" sequence of the nucleic acids, and, above all, on the consequences or "actions" that result from a specific information transfer (e.
Today, many scientific disciplines use the term "information" in one way or another.
[information.sub.1] = meaning (semantic information)
[information.sub.2] = structure of genetic material (genetic "information")
[information.sub.5] = quantity of information carried by a signal in a system
If one defines information as "the configurative, pictorial, or conceptual representation(5) of an empirical phenomenon possessing the potential of changing the action, intention or expectation of an entity in such a way that without this information the entity would act, intend or expect differently,"(6) then the following relations and notions emerge: 1.
useful or efficient information (see note 6) if some person receiving