Others have taken the opportunity to promote themselves and project expertise in their quest to earn money and fame by becoming "Thought Leaders" or "Social Media Celebrities." The proliferation and volumeof information causes INATTENTION, and many people today are suffering from INFORMATION BIAS
Though limited by factors inherent in retrospective chart review, such as information bias
at the time of data collection (which was mitigated by cross-checking data and having only two data collectors), the findings of the current study suggest that "concurrent urogynecologic and gynecologic oncology surgery should be offered to appropriate patients, as adding urogynecology surgery does not increase the risk of serious adverse events," she concluded, adding that the study "highlights the importance of preoperative counseling, including discussion of the increased risk of minor postoperative adverse events, such as postoperative voiding symptoms and urinary tract infection, as well as discussion of the 10% risk of a change in intraoperative plan in the urogynecologic procedure."
Limitations include the self-reporting nature of food frequency questionnaires and their potential for information bias
Is there any discernible information bias
, either intentional or unintentional?
Limitations of this meta-analysis include the fact that none of the trials was designed to address the risk of cardiovascular disease; in addition, some studies assessed outcomes by patient self-report, raising the possibility of information bias
However as risk is assessed after disease has occurred there may be inherent biases such as recall bias, misclassification of risk factor or incomplete information (information bias
The authors cited several limitations, including potential for coding errors, potential for information bias
due to misclassification of the outcome of interest, lack of incidence rates for specific sites, and definitions used for incident cases of OA (physician-diagnosed vs.
He acknowledged certain limitations of the study, including ascertainment and information bias
due to the use of administrative data, "but we tried to mitigate this by using more than one service encounter and use of concomitant medications to ascertain medical conditions.
His topics include causality and comparative studies, varieties of bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, information bias
, and contending with bias.
Define selection bias, recall bias, interviewer bias, and information bias
This will result in a form of information bias
known as partial verification bias (Lijmer et al 1999).