inflammasome

inflammasome

A multiprotein cytoplasmic complex which activates one or more caspases, leading to the processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines—e.g., IL-1 beta, IL-18 and IL-33. Assembly of inflammasomes depends on the NOD-like receptor family members, such as the NALP proteins. The best studied of these pro-inflammatory protein complexes are NALP1 inflammasome and NALP3 inflammasome. Inflammasomes co-operate with Toll-like receptors to respond appropriately to pathogenic triggers and metabolic or genotoxic stresses, by processing interleukins and promoting the inflammatory response. Dysegulation or mutations in the genes’ encoding components of the inflammasome complex are associated with auto-immunity problems.

inflammasome

(in-flam′ă-sōm″) [ inflamma(tion) + -some]
A cytoplasmic complex that regulates the activation of caspase enzymes, which convert interleukins from their inactive forms to active forms.

inflammasome

A complex of proteins found in macrophages and neutrophils with a fundamental role in the production of inflammation in innate immunity. The NALP 1 and NALP 3 members of the NALP family of proteins (nacht domain-, leucine-rich repeat-, and pyd-containing proteins) are the main components of the inflammasome. NAPL3 (cryopyrin) is the central element in the cryopyrin inflammasome. Activation of cryopyrin by bacteria or urate crystals (as in gout) sets off a cascade of events leading to inflammation.
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to extend its resources, Conatus is implementing a restructuring plan that includes reducing staff by approximately 40% and suspending development of its inflammasome disease candidate, CTS-2090.
In addition to the benefits of whole food, elimination-type diets for autoimmune conditions and targeting Gl function, inflammasome activity can be curtailed through [beta]-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone.
The NLRP3 inflammasome is believed to drive chronic inflammation associated with the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's Disease.
Background: The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome composed of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), and caspase-1 is engaged in the inflammatory response of many kidney diseases and can be activated by purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R).
"We found a key immune system target, called the NLRP3 inflammasome, lights up in Parkinson's patients, with signals found in the brain and even in the blood," Woodruff said.
Recently, the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex (including NOD-like receptor NLRP3, the adaptor molecule apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain, and the effector molecule procaspase-1) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain (2, 5).
Innate immune responses are induced through interaction with toll-like receptors and inflammasome activation initially and subsequently through adaptive immune activation.
These promote the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome within activated microglia.
In these subjects, the researchers found genetic evidence of the involvement of a so-called inflammasome.
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that recognizes various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).
The Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome by a Mechanism Involving the RIP1-RIP3 Signaling Pathway
In humans, NLRP1 has the ability to activate caspase-1 by interacting directly with procaspase-1 or by recruiting adaptor protein ASC and then recruiting procaspase-1 to form a complex known as inflammasome [36].