Section 1(1) is silent on the issue of reinfibulation, which involves re-closing an infibulated
woman's vulva after it has been opened to allow for childbirth.
The information available indicates that more than 95% of all women are circumcised, of whom more than 95% are infibulated
Lilly is frequently asked by her white British coworkers to adopt the role of cultural translator: I've been called upon to assuage the fears of infibulated
women in labour, to explain to a doctor that the scars on someone's back are not the result of abuse but the well-intended evidence of leeching or cupping, to help bedridden folk perform ablutions before prayer, even to read from the Qu'ran while someone slips away.
* It is believed to preserve a girl's virginity, widely regarded as a prerequisite for marriage, and helps to preserve her morality and fidelity: in some ethnic groups, virginity is associated with an infibulated
vulva, not with an intact hymen.
The first time having sexual intercourse will often be extremely painful, and infibulated
women will need the labia majora to be opened, to allow their partner access to the vagina.
Giving birth is fraught with mortal danger for both the infibulated
woman and her infant, due to the inelasticity of her infibulation scar, which prevents dilation beyond four of the ten centimeters required to pass the fetal head.
women are subject to a number of long-term complications, including chronic urinary and vaginal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, pain with menses, dyspareunia, obstetric complications, and moderate rates of infertility.
In addition there has been evidence of parents determined to have their daughters infibulated
in a traditional manner, taking the girls overseas on the pretext of family holidays.
Pareyio would show a whole vulva, then one without a clitoris (the circumcision ritual in Kenya, recently outlawed but still widespread) and finally a vagina that had been infibulated
, which is the removal of labia minora and clitoris and the stitching shut of the vulva, leaving just a tiny hole.
In Somalia most girls are infibulated
, which means not only is their genitalia (clitoris and labia) cut away, but the wound is `stitched' with thorns.
(18) Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, "The Sexual Experience and Marital Adjustment of Genital Circumcised and Infibulated
Females in The Sudan," The Journal of Sex Research 26 (1989) 375-92.
Women were left with loss of erotic sensation, enormous pain during intercourse, chronic bowel and urination problems requiring regular catheter use, and ongoing serious infections; the same set of medical sequelae have been reported among infibulated