The inferior laryngeal nerve
. Surgical and anatomical considerations.
The inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN), a motor and sensory branch of the tenth cranial nerve or vagus nerve, provides the motor innervation for all the laryngeal intrinsic muscles with the exception of the cricothyroid muscle and the sensory innervation of the subglottic laryngeal mucosa.
Dissection of the inferior laryngeal nerve is advisable in thyroid surgeries so as to avoid its injury and the resulting morbidity this causes on the innervation of the larynx and the patient's quality of life (Ngo Nyeki, et al., 2015).
Right nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve and arteria lusoria: the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of an anatomic anomaly.
Ozan, "Detailed investigation of the relationship between the inferior laryngeal nerve
including laryngeal branches and ligament of Berry," Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol.
The presence of a nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve
(NRILN) is a significant risk factor for nerve injury during thyroid, parathyroid, and vascular surgeries involving the paratracheal area of the head and neck.
Paludetti, et al., "Voice and Swallowing Changes After Thyroidectomy in Patients Without Inferior Laryngeal Nerve
Injuries," Surgery 140, no.
The safety of thyroid operations mainly depends on complete anatomic knowledge of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN) including all its variations.
Ozan, "Laryngeal branching pattern of the inferior laryngeal nerve, before entering the larynx," Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol.
D'Alatri et al., "Voice and swallowing changes after thyroidectomy in patients without inferior laryngeal nerve
injuries," Surgery, vol.
Some reports refer to the intralaryngeal portion of the nerve as the inferior laryngeal nerve
, but we will continue to employ the term RLN.
There are numerous causes leading to paralysis of superior and/or inferior laryngeal nerves
, particularly of the inferior laryngeal or recurrent nerve on its "long way" .