induced abortion


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Related to induced abortion: therapeutic abortion

abortion

 [ah-bor´shun]
termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable. In the medical sense, this term and the term miscarriage both refer to the termination of pregnancy before the fetus is capable of survival outside the uterus. The term abortion is more commonly used as a synonym for induced abortion, the deliberate interruption of pregnancy, as opposed to miscarriage, which connotes a spontaneous or natural loss of the fetus. Because of this distinction made by the average layperson, care should be exercised in the use of the word abortion when speaking of a spontaneous loss of the fetus.

The technique chosen to terminate pregnancy depends on the stage of pregnancy and the policies of the institution and patient needs. It is rare for a fetus to survive if it weighs less than 500 g, or if the pregnancy is terminated before 20 weeks of gestation. These factors are, however, difficult to determine with a high degree of accuracy while the fetus is still in utero; survival of the fetus delivered near the end of the second trimester often depends to a great extent on the availability of personnel and equipment capable of supporting life until the infant develops sufficiently.

Viability of the fetus outside the uterus is frequently used as the determining factor in deciding the legality and morality of induced abortion. Whether this is a valid criterion is essentially based on whether one believes that the fetus is human from the moment of conception or that it achieves humanity at some point during physical development. Those who oppose abortion on moral grounds believe that the fetus is human or potentially human and that destruction of the fetal body is tantamount to murder. Many others have equally strong beliefs that abortion is a woman's right.

The liberalization of abortion laws has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of abortions performed in physicians' offices, clinics, and hospitals. While this has diminished the occurrence of septic abortions performed at the hands of unscrupulous abortionists and has improved the possibility of safe and uneventful physical recovery from an induced abortion, the issue remains controversial and charged with emotion. The health care provider who strongly objects to abortion is legally and morally free to choose not to participate in the procedure and is advised to avoid situations involving responsibility for the care of patients who have chosen abortion as a means of ending an unwanted pregnancy. Women who have made a decision to have an abortion need a safe, non-judgmental environment to recover physically and emotionally from the procedure.

The patient should know that other alternatives are available and that an abortion after 20 weeks is inadvisable for medical and other reasons. Preabortion counseling in the psychological, religious, and legal aspects of abortion should be readily available, with immediate referral to the proper resources. Although delay in carrying out the procedure may increase the risk of complications, no patient should be encouraged to go through with an abortion until she has had time and sufficient counseling to reach a rational decision. During postabortion counseling there should be a discussion of various methods of contraception. The client will need information on the advantages and disadvantages of each method, her responsibilities in preventing future unwanted pregnancies, and available help in initiating and following through on a program of effective contraception. She should be informed that women who have had two or more abortions run a greatly increased risk of miscarriage or spontaneous abortion in the first six months of subsequent pregnancies.
Patient Care. The type of care required and the complications to be avoided in abortion will depend on the stage of pregnancy at the time of termination and whether the abortion is spontaneous, is induced under sterile conditions, or is performed by an unskilled abortionist or the patient herself. Many women who choose to have an abortion are anxious and confused about the physical and psychological outcomes of the procedure. Therefore both pre- and postabortion counseling are recommended.

In cases of spontaneous or habitual abortion, patient care is directed toward emotional support of the patient and acceptance of her feelings of bitterness, grief, guilt, relief, and other emotions associated with the loss of the fetus. The patient should be able to express her feelings in an open, nonjudgmental, and nonthreatening environment.
complete abortion complete expulsion of all the products of conception.
criminal abortion termination of pregnancy by illegal interference, usually undertaken when legal induced abortion is unavailable. The most frequent complications are severe hemorrhage and sepsis, and for those who delay seeking medical attention the mortality rate is high.
early abortion abortion within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
elective abortion induced abortion done at the request of the mother for other than therapeutic reasons.
habitual abortion spontaneous abortion in three or more consecutive pregnancies before the 20th week of gestation.
incomplete abortion abortion in which parts of the products of conception are retained in the uterus.
induced abortion abortion brought on intentionally by medication or instrumentation.
inevitable abortion a condition in which vaginal bleeding has been profuse, membranes usually show gross rupturing, the cervix has become dilated, and abortion is almost certain.
infected abortion abortion associated with infection of the genital tract from retained material, with a febrile reaction.
missed abortion retention of dead products of conception in utero for more than 8 weeks.
septic abortion abortion associated with serious infection of the products of conception and endometrial lining of the uterus, leading to generalized infection; it is usually caused by pathogenic organisms of the bowel or vagina.
spontaneous abortion termination of pregnancy before the fetus is sufficiently developed to survive; called miscarriage by laypersons. In the United States this definition is confined to the termination of pregnancy before 20 weeks' gestation (based upon the date of the first day of the last normal menses). Chromosomal abnormalities cause at least half of spontaneous abortions.
therapeutic abortion abortion induced legally by a qualified physician to safeguard the health of the mother.
threatened abortion a condition in which vaginal bleeding is less than in inevitable abortion, the cervix is not dilated, and abortion may or may not occur; this is the presumed diagnosis when any bloody vaginal discharge or vaginal bleeding occurs in the first half of pregnancy.

in·duced a·bor·tion

abortion brought on intentionally by drugs or mechanical means.

induced abortion

(ĭn-do͞ost′, -dyo͞ost′)
n.

induced abortion

Termination of pregnancy The voluntary termination of gestational products, a procedure performed by instruments–eg, dilatation and curettage, if performed in the first trimester or by saline infusion–saline abortion if performed later. See Abortion.

in·duced a·bor·tion

(in-dūst' ă-bōr'shŭn)
Abortion brought on deliberately by drugs or mechanical means.
References in periodicals archive ?
Angela Lanfranchi, Joel Brind and others have for many years documented the overwhelming evidence from around the world of a direct link between induced abortion, and the subsequently higher rate of breast cancer experienced by women who undergo those abortions.
Previous research has shown that induced abortion is often underreported even in societies in which the procedure is not legally restricted, (8) which may be because some people are not comfortable with the subject and may not answer direct survey questions about it honestly.
Results: The mean score of students' attitude towards voluntary induced abortion was 39.8+-7.9 which shows that nursing students moderately support abortion.
The researchers identified a total of 12 (1.5 per 10,000) IUA diagnoses from 79,960 eligible induced abortions. The rate of IUA was 1.5 per 10,000 medically-induced abortions and 2.0 cases per 10,000 surgically-induced abortions (P = 0.19).
A relatively high incidence of unanticipated abnormal coagulation indices was observed and prompted the authors to report findings on the possible adverse influence of the anesthetic intervention on some members of a patient population that may be more vulnerable to excessive bleeding, such as during an induced abortion.
No other socio-demographic variable was significantly associated with current use of contraceptive, ever been pregnant or ever had induced abortion, Table 6.
Induced abortion is the most controversial area of family planning and often the most important method of fertility regulation by a community in the struggle to control family size.
The risk factors and immediate complications of septic induced abortion. Isra Medical Journal, 2014; 6 (2): 86-9.
Based on these data and doxycycline's cost effectiveness and its minimal adverse effects, the SFP recommends doxycydine as the antibiotic of choice for prevention of infection after induced abortion. Antibiotics should be administered on the day of the procedure and, if clinicians prefer, for no more than 3 days afterwards.
"It is absolutely a matter of the most fundamental of patients' rights that a patient considering a surgical or medical procedure be informed that having the procedure--most particularly if the procedure is an elective procedure performed on a healthy patient, as induced abortion generally is--will result in her having a higher long-term risk of developing a potentially life-threatening disease--such as breast cancer--compared to not having the procedure."
The second manifests in a decline in marriage, itself a radical change in society, and which also leads to further reduction in the birth rate, and a parallel further increase in induced abortions, which are much more common among unmarried women.
Islamabad -- The Population Council, Pakistan office, Wednesday released two highly policy relevant research studies, entitled "Investigating the Low Patterns of Modern Contraceptive Use in Pakistan and "Induced Abortions and Unintended Pregnancies in Pakistan".