Of notice, when we applied our genotoxicity classifier to the prediction of unlabeled chemicals, the top ranked predicted genotoxicant was indoxyl
sulfate, which is an endogenous tryptophan metabolite.
Microvesicles derived from indoxyl
sulfate treated endothelial cells induce endothelial progenitor cells dysfunction.
Uremic Toxins with Similarities Purine Derivatives: Cytidine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid Pyrimidine Derivatives:_Thymine, orotic acid, orotidine, uridine Methyl amine Derivatives:_Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine Indole Derivatives: Kynurenine, indole-3-acetate, kynurenic acid, melatonin, indoxyl
sulfate, quinolinic acid.
sulfate is produced by intestinal microbial tryptophanases that convert food tryptophan to indole, which is then transformed into indoxyl
sulfate in the liver.
sulfate is a small solute (MW = 213g/mol) that is in >90% reversibly bound to plasma proteins, predominantly to albumin ; thus, tubular secretion is the major elimination pathway .
Nakatani et al., "Indoxyl
sulfate suppresses hepatic fetuin-A expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in HepG2 cells," Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, vol.
In addition, a direct connection was prominently revealed between increased levels of p-cresyl sulfate and poor prognosis on patients at CKD end stages; associations between indoxyl
sulfate and unfavourable prognosis have been shown, as well, since it was demonstrated they share common ground, being both originated from bacterial protein fermentation in the large intestine.
that is liberated combines with a diazonium salt in order to produce a violet coloured azole dye.
Liu et al., "High uric acid ameliorates indoxyl
sulfate-induced endothelial dysfunction and is associated with lower mortality among hemodialysis patients," Toxins, vol.
p-Cresol sulfate (pCS) is the sulfate conjugate of p-cresol, which is formed by microbes from tyrosine; indoxyl
sulfate (IS) is the sulfate conjugate of indoxyl
, which is formed by microbes from tryptophan .
One of the indole metabolic pathways was known as the isatin pathway, in which indole was degraded via the formation of indoxyl
, 2,3-dihydroxyindole, isatin, N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, and catechol .
Researchers have been focusing on two such uremic retention molecules; indoxyl
sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) .