indoxyl


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indoxyl

 [in-dok´sil]
an oxidation product of indole formed in tryptophan decomposition, and excreted in the urine as indican.

in·dox·yl

(in-dok'sil),
The radical of 3-hydroxyindole; a product of intestinal bacterial degradation of indoleacetic acid, excreted in the urine as indoleaceturic acid (conjugated with glycine), as a sulfate (urinary indican), or as a glucuronide (glucosiduronate); increased amounts are excreted in phenylketonuria.

in·dox·yl

(in-dok'sil)
The radical of 3-hydroxyindole; a product of intestinal bacterial degradation of indoleacetic acid; increased amounts are excreted in the urine in phenylketonuria.
References in periodicals archive ?
Of notice, when we applied our genotoxicity classifier to the prediction of unlabeled chemicals, the top ranked predicted genotoxicant was indoxyl sulfate, which is an endogenous tryptophan metabolite.
Microvesicles derived from indoxyl sulfate treated endothelial cells induce endothelial progenitor cells dysfunction.
Uremic Toxins with Similarities Purine Derivatives: Cytidine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid Pyrimidine Derivatives:_Thymine, orotic acid, orotidine, uridine Methyl amine Derivatives:_Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine Indole Derivatives: Kynurenine, indole-3-acetate, kynurenic acid, melatonin, indoxyl sulfate, quinolinic acid.
Indoxyl sulfate is produced by intestinal microbial tryptophanases that convert food tryptophan to indole, which is then transformed into indoxyl and indoxyl sulfate in the liver.
Indoxyl sulfate is a small solute (MW = 213g/mol) that is in >90% reversibly bound to plasma proteins, predominantly to albumin [5]; thus, tubular secretion is the major elimination pathway [1].
Nakatani et al., "Indoxyl sulfate suppresses hepatic fetuin-A expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in HepG2 cells," Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, vol.
In addition, a direct connection was prominently revealed between increased levels of p-cresyl sulfate and poor prognosis on patients at CKD end stages; associations between indoxyl sulfate and unfavourable prognosis have been shown, as well, since it was demonstrated they share common ground, being both originated from bacterial protein fermentation in the large intestine.
The indoxyl that is liberated combines with a diazonium salt in order to produce a violet coloured azole dye.
Liu et al., "High uric acid ameliorates indoxyl sulfate-induced endothelial dysfunction and is associated with lower mortality among hemodialysis patients," Toxins, vol.
p-Cresol sulfate (pCS) is the sulfate conjugate of p-cresol, which is formed by microbes from tyrosine; indoxyl sulfate (IS) is the sulfate conjugate of indoxyl, which is formed by microbes from tryptophan [30].
One of the indole metabolic pathways was known as the isatin pathway, in which indole was degraded via the formation of indoxyl, 2,3-dihydroxyindole, isatin, N-formylanthranilic acid, anthranilic acid, salicylic acid, and catechol [15].
Researchers have been focusing on two such uremic retention molecules; indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) [2].