(MDSCs = myeloid derived suppressor cells; Tregs = T-regulatory cells; IDO = indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase; TERT = telomerase reverse transcriptase; lncRNAs = long non-coding RNAs.)
For example, a large number of indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in humans, nitric oxide (NO) in mice, and chemokines produced by MSCs play a key part in MSC-mediated immunomodulation .
Kruse, "The rationale of indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase inhibition for cancer therapy," European Journal of Cancer, vol.
Melatonin is a hormone mainly secreted during the night, and, since its discovery, many physiological functions have been attributed to this indoleamine
, which is a pleiotropic molecule that acts as a hormone in mammals.
Wang et al., "Role of indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase in an inflammatory model of murine gingiva," Journal of Periodontal Research, vol.
2,3-dioxygenase: from catalyst to signaling function," European Journal of Immunology, vol.
Abbreviations: CD, cluster of differentiation; CTLA4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IDO, indoleamine
2,3dioxygenase; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; LAG3, lymphocyte activation gene 3; PD-1, programmed death receptor-1 (programmed death-ligand 1 receptor); PD-L1, programmed death ligand-1; TLR, toll-like receptors; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
Inhibition of indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase activity by levo-1-methyl tryptophan blocks gamma interferon-induced Chlamydia trachomatis persistence in human epithelial cells.
According to a new study published in the Nature Journal Scientific Reports, high levels of this enzyme, indoleamine
2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) at diagnosis also identifies those who might benefit most by taking an IDO inhibitor along with their standard therapy.
The serotonin system, for instance, might be influenced by metabolic changes [e.g., increased activity of the indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase, leading to decreased concentration of the precursor tryptophan, and increased levels of kynurenine metabolites with toxic effects on the brain (59)], as well as through the activity of the serotonin transporter [which is increased after acute administration of cytokines and in depressed patients (60,61)].
MSCs regulate effector functions of adaptive and innate immune cells through the release of soluble factors such as prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, and indoleamine
2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) (8).
2,3 dioxygenase and metabolic control of immune responses.