, synthesized from serotonin and melatonin, has been shown to be biologically active in amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals and is physiologically regulated by radiation stimuli such as sunlight.
It is suggested that inflammatory variables may lead to depression by i) affecting neurotransmitters, ii) decreasing serotonin and inducing glutamate toxicity by stimulating indolamine
2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in glial cells, iii) suppressing neurogenesis by decreasing BDNF activity, or iv) increasing HPA axis activity (38, 41, 42).
Optimal management of HIE includes prompt resuscitation, continued supportive care (thermal regulation, fluid / electrolytes, blood glucose homeostasis and control of seizures).9 However, even with optimal management, approximate half the newborns with moderate to severe encephalopathy may either die or develop severe disability.10 N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) is an endogenously produced indolamine
primarily produced by pineal body.11 It is a naturally appearing neuroendocrine molecule released as a result of environmental light-dark cycle.
IO Biotech's lead candidate, IO102, is an indolamine
2,3 dehydrogenase (IDO)-derived immune modulating therapy with dual mode of action killing both cancer and immune-suppressive cells.
This includes neurodegenerative processes of the brainstem monoamine and indolamine
afferents, along with various subcortical nuclei (ventral tegmental area, hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and locus coeruleus) that have been implicated in depression .
Melatonin is an indolamine
secreted by the pineal gland during the dark phase of the daily light/dark cycle, it is synthesized from the tryptophan.
2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), first and rate-limiting enzyme of kynurenine (Kyn) pathway, is a tryptophan (Trp) degrading enzyme having immunoinflammatory effects.
Endotoxin-induced tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway: The role of indolamine
2,3-dioxygenase and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated immunosuppressive effects in endotoxin tolerance and cancer and its implications for immunoparalysis.
Harkin, "Induction of indolamine
2,3-dioxygenase and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase in rat brain following a systemic inflammatory challenge: a role for IFN-[gamma]?" Neuroscience Letters, vol.
The tumor associated antigens are recognised by T-cells, which leads to tumors being eradicated; however, tumoral cells escape from immunoediting by expressing programmed cell death ligand (PDL-1) and similar inhibitory gene products like IDO (indolamine
2,3 dioxygenase), TGF-[beta] (transforming growth factor-[beta]), and Interleukin-10 (IL-10).
While most conventional antidepressant drugs for depression modulate brain monoamine and indolamine
activity (Nutt 2008) recent data suggest that the antidepressant effect of R.
Biochemically, both dopamine and norepinephrine are catecholamines, while serotonin is an indolamine
. Both dopamine and epinephrine are primarily inhibitory neurotransmitters and make postsynaptic cells inhibitory for catecholamines.