This involved two components: (i) a clinical interview to record demographics, HIV status, CD4 count results, use of ART and CMV treatments, ocular symptoms, and a brief systemic symptom screen probing shortness of breath, diarrhoea, fever, headache, change in personality and decreased concentration; and (ii) visual acuity measurements using a Snellen chart or gross visual tests for vision worse than 6/120, and an ophthalmological examination including indirect ophthalmoscopy
with fully dilated pupils to categorise CMV-R zonal location and to assess the presence of CMV-R complications, namely vitreous haemorrhage, cataract, endophthalmitis and uveitis.
was performed in the operated eye after induction of mydriasis with tropicamide eyedrops (Mydriacyl, Allergan) on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th postoperative days.
All breaks were identified using indirect ophthalmoscopy
and indentation, and sealed using cryocoagulation.
Although ophthalmologists are accustomed to the inverted small view of the indirect ophthalmoscopy
, localizing small breaks can be difficult in cases with a small pupil, opaque posterior capsular, or media opacities [8-10].
In the procedure, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
and scleral buckle are used to localize retinal tears.
Bilateral fundus was normal by indirect ophthalmoscopy
A full physical examination was performed on all birds, which were subject to a full ophthalmic examination using direct (Direct Ophthalmoscope, Welch Allyn, Skaneateles Falls, NY, USA) and indirect ophthalmoscopy
(Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope, Welch Allyn) and slit lamp biomicroscopy (PSL Portable Slit Lamp, Reichert Inc.
All the participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity (VA) measurement, refraction, and slit lamp examination, dilated fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy
, +90D and direct ophthalmoscopy.
Pupils were dilated and fundoscopy performed with direct, indirect ophthalmoscopy
and slit lamp indirect bimicroscopy.
Dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy
coupled with biomicroscopy, and 7 standard field stereoscopic 30[degrees] fundus photography are both accepted methods for examining diabetic retinopathy.
Various screening techniques for retinopathy have been studied, including direct ophthalmoscopy through dilated or undilated pupils; indirect ophthalmoscopy
; and stereoscopic or nonstereoscopic retinal photography through dilated or undilated pupils.[13-28] It has been suggested that seven-field stereoscopic fundus photography or fluorescein angiography should be used as the reference standard with which the effectiveness of screening methods can be compared, With most experts currently supporting the use of the former.
The regulations specify that, when possible, the external examination should be by slit lamp and the internal examination by binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
using a slit lamp and condensing lens.