Since d-linking essentially takes the form of the cancellation of otherwise predicted superiority effects, and we only tested for this in the direct and indirect objects, where however no superiority effect was found, our data fails to throw any light on this question.
The last change from the German conditions was an addition: we tested the indirect objects in initial position both as "dative-shifted" NPs and as PPs (cf.
We did not test for in-situ prepositional indirect objects, however, since we doubt that these will reveal any additional relevant effect.
I suspect, however, that this is a rare usage of indirect object le with conocer, with a literal translation of le conoce asi being something like `recognizes such in it', meaning, `recognizes that such is the case in this matter'.
In cases such as these, it is not that lo is being utilized as an indirect object pronoun but rather that the speaker has opted to use a direct object in a construction that normally takes an indirect object.
The two syntactic variants: the pattern indirect object + direct object, and the pattern direct object + prepositional object.
gt;nat (the pattern indirect object + direct object, the pattern direct object + prepositional object)
Since Pasar Malay marks human direct and indirect objects with sama `with', a phenomenon that is also attested for the Cape Colony (at least in the abovementioned translation into some sort of Malay written down by a Dutch interpreter), and since it is likely that nonstandard rather than Standard Malay was spoken among Indonesian slaves at the Cape, we have a problem: how is it possible that Pasar Malay and maybe also (an early form of) Malayo-Portuguese have not equally influenced Afrikaans?
And in the next section we will see that Eastern Malay dialects often differ from (western) Pasar Malay in that human direct and/or indirect objects are marked with prepositional elements like pa rather than with sama, as has in fact already been noticed for Manado and North Moluccan Malay by Baxter (1988: 170, note 4).
The percentage of licensed and unlicensed indirect object
ellipsis is based on a very small sample and so cannot be taken as a well-documented phenomenon.
Without an understanding of the cross-referencing system or prepositions Mayan children might produce something like the Chol construction with indirect object cross-referencing on the verb (10b).
These examples present a uniquely "K'iche'" pattern of indirect object expression that contrasts with the applicative construction in Tzeltal.