Since Pasar Malay marks human direct and indirect objects
with sama `with', a phenomenon that is also attested for the Cape Colony (at least in the abovementioned translation into some sort of Malay written down by a Dutch interpreter), and since it is likely that nonstandard rather than Standard Malay was spoken among Indonesian slaves at the Cape, we have a problem: how is it possible that Pasar Malay and maybe also (an early form of) Malayo-Portuguese have not equally influenced Afrikaans?
Table 5 shows that all four children reveal very similar patterns in distribution of contexts for subject, direct object, and indirect object
in all southern dialects of Greek a synonymous construction with indirect objects
--both full nominals and clitics, as well as indirect objects
in clitic doubling contexts--marked by morphological genitive occurs.
It has the coding properties of an indirect object
, but it has the semantic and pragmatic properties of prototypical subjects.
Verbs that can take a direct and an indirect object
are called ditransitive verbs:
However, K'iche' children express applicative functions at least as frequently as the Tzeltal children do, simply distributing their expression of indirect objects
across a different set of constructions in line with what K'iche' affords.
The two syntactic variants: the pattern indirect object
+ direct object, and the pattern direct object + prepositional object.
Crosslinguistically, one of the participants of three-place predicates is typically marked as indirect object
or as adjunct participant of a transitive verb.
Impersonal verbs such as piacere and nuocere, while intransitive, are also bivalent, requiring a subject and an indirect object
In (2i-j) the "displaced" potential (underlying) object can be interpreted as an indirect object
, like the to-phrase in (4a):
Subject Action verb Direct object (nominative (accusative) case) feminam dat aquam Indirect object
Children learning K'iehe' omit the preposition at the head of the indirect object
phrase, but retain the ergative cross-reference markers.