This article considers the current prospects for enacting a national personal assistance services program offering services under the independent living model in this country.
Several years ago, my colleagues and I recommended the establishment of a national personal assistance services program organized under the independent living model for people with disabilities (Batavia, DeJong, & McKnew, 1991).
through the direct provision of services) or by providing the individual with a disability cash or a cash equivalent (such as a voucher, medical savings account, or tax credit) and 2) whether, in addition to the independent living model, services should be offered under other models, such as the medical model.
One of the cornerstone policy issues of the movement was, and continues to be, access to home and community-based personal assistance services provided under the independent living model (DeJong & Wenker, 1983).
home health care and personal assistance) was de-emphasized and the independent living model
was adopted (Watson, 1993).
Cultural diversity and personal assistance services: Is the independent living model
best suited for all people with disabilities?
In contrast, the independent living model
is based on a socio-political view of disability as a problem residing outside of the individual that must be understood from an individual frame of reference (Roth, 1985) and that is often exacerbated by professional control (Nosek, 1992).
In sum, the Virginia CD-PAS program incorporates all of the following characteristics of the pure independent living model
, as outlined in Attending to America (Litvak, 1987):
The independent living model
continues to gain acceptance as a professional service which plays a significant role in the lives of people with disabilities.
The 1992 Amendments require a consumer directed approach which is more reflective of the holistic independent living model
Yet they're already impacting an industry that is wooing their aging parents with independent living models
that mimic five-star resorts, completely obliterating the stereotypical notion of old folks' homes.
The problems associated with the direct support workforce have been chronicled for more than 25 years and span institutional, community-based, and independent living models
of service delivery.