Complete loss of infectivity was also observed after virus exposure to 1% hypochlorite (often used to inactivate
virus in liquid wastes in BSL-2/3 laboratories), 2% paraformaldehyde (used to inactivate
virus for subsequent flow cytometry), and 2% glutaraldehyde (often applied to fix virus for subsequent electron microscopy analysis) (Figure, panel A).
Good food manufacturing practices and proper sanitation can reduce microbial contamination, and this also makes it possible to inactivate
bacteria using lower irradiation doses.
Though it is less effective in the presence of fat, which acts as a protective layer, it can retain the freshness of jams and fruit and vegetable juices; extend the shelf life of white and red grape musts; inactivate
enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in guava puree; and inactivate
bacterial spores when used with heat.
"This work confirms what researchers have suspected about how aspirin inactivates
this enzyme," says Lawrence Marnett, a biochemist at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville.
But he cautions that neither group has proven that XIST inactivates X chromosomes.
In the 1960s, geneticists discovered that female mammalian embryos randomly inactivate one of their X chromosomes.
They have isolated from white blood cells called monocytes a molecule that blocks and inactivates the interleukin-1 receptors on other white blood cells, effectively shutting down interleukin-1's ability to stimulate - and sometimes over-stimulate - the immune system.
To thwart this death spiral, infectious disease specialists and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies are working to develop compounds to sop up or inactivate bits of partially destroyed bacteria that can keep the body battling and already eradicated infection.
But rats receiving doses of an antibody that inactivates
naturally occurring nerve-growth inhibitors showed "massive sprouting" of new nerve fibers at the injury site, the researchers report in the Jan.
Kingsley, for example, is investigating the use of a specialized procedure known as "high-pressure processing," or HPP, to inactivate
viruses, specifically norovirus and hepatitis A virus.