Although historians have long debated this war's origins (see Dudley 2003, 1-2), violation of American neutral rights, in particular the impressment
of seamen from U.S.-flagged ships, was at the very least a nominal reason for the U.S.
It appears that Adams nonetheless used the constitutional arguments strategically in negotiations with the British to avoid the more sensitive topic of impressment
In 1912 he insisted: "It's no wonder that people refuse to be recruited; the advance they receive won't cover food for the family for six months, and in any case there is nowhere to buy food." (33) In 1913 and again in 1915, he complained that the quota of laborers required from his domain was "excessive" and that people were continuing to leave the district to avoid impressment
. By 1916, over 1300 Gorongosans were being recruited for labor in Manica.
Indeed, the adoption of the Clause was partially motivated by fear of uncompensated "impressment
" of private property by unaccountable federal officials against the will of the people.
He also gives examples of times in which the Write failed, in cases of slavery and impressment
particularly, as well as noting times when it was hindered by local legislation.
(221) It is a relatively recent development, because for much of history sovereigns relied on either voluntary enlistment or impressment
to staff their armed forces.
This did not mean that the immigrants' passage was easy--during the 1770s and 1780s delays in departure could last up to four weeks, the threats of piracy and the impressment
of passengers were well-founded, the Delaware Bay at the zenith of the journey was treacherous and Philadelphia itself was prone to ice up in winter.
has exposed more than a hint of two-party performance." This does not mean there were not serious policy differences between the president and legislators, but each necessary measure, like conscription or impressment
, in a way, became a referendum on Confederate nationalism.
George Tucker in 1803 suggested that the clause "was probably intended to restrain the arbitrary and oppressive mode of obtaining supplies for the army, and other public uses, by impressment
, as was too frequently practised during the revolutionary war." (28) Madison, in his private writings, indicated another area in which the clause would have effect: it would require compensation if the national government were to abolish slavery.
In the month she turned six, for example, she composed a poem called "On the Cruelty of Forcement to Man: Alluding to the Press Gang," protesting against the impressment
of civilians and American seamen into the British navy, a topic recurring in the London Times in 1812.
Likewise, at the conclusion of the War of 1812, the Treaty of Ghent failed to address President James Madison's objectives that the British cease the practices of naval blockades and impressment
against the United States and its citizens.
Some social conditions, such as indenture or military service by impressment
, restrict a character's freedom of movement, and so they too are considered "confined" situations.