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Whereas the incidence of inflammation along with immunosenescence results in a decline of multiple physiological systems and functional dependence among the elderly [12-14], the negative effects of the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on cognitive abilities such as memory and learning deficits were greatly reported among older people with Alzheimer's disease [15].
Biasini et al., "Marked increase with age of type 1 cytokines within memory and effector/cytotoxic [CD8.sup.+] T cells in humans: a contribution to understand the relationship between inflammation and immunosenescence," Experimental Gerontology, vol.
Immunosenescence is the lifelong reduction in immunological reserve and homeostasis.
Natural killer cell immunosenescence in acute myeloid leukaemia patients: new targets for immunotherapeutic strategies?
Commonly reported characteristics of the natural ageing process include inflammation or oxidative stress-associated symptoms such as directionally inaccurate chemotaxis, premature or suboptimal respiratory burst, and increased proinflammatory signalling from immune cells, all of which form the basis of immunosenescence [23].
Grassi-Oliveira et al., "Immunosenescence is associated with human cytomegalovirus and shortened telomeres in type I bipolar disorder," Bipolar Disorders, vol.
SE alleles might contribute to the genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis causing an immune dysregulation (controlling both specificity and amount of ACPA production) or a premature immunosenescence [10].
"We conclude that CHF (chronic heart failure) patients show a higher degree of immunosenescence than age-matched healthy controls.
This resembles the phenomenon of immunosenescence that has been associated with ageing [2].
This age-related reduction in immune system vigilance is called immunosenescence. (64)
It was also suggested that long-term rituximab therapy, another type of biological with specificity to B-cells targeting CD20, produces T-cell alterations similar to immunosenescence characterized by an increased susceptibility to infections [26] and that JC virus reactivation causing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may be preceded by specific T-cell subset alterations in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients [27].