Semaphorin3A: an immunoregulator
in systemic sclerosis.
"IFN-[gamma], which is produced primarily by T-helper (Th) cells of the Th1 and Th0 subtypes, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer cells, is the main immunoregulator
. IFN-[gamma] directs differentiation of T cells to a Th1 phenotype and induces display of major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules on different cell types in cell-mediated responses.
Other important cytokines like interleukin (IL)-15, 17 and 12-23 have a role in the psoriasis pathogenesis, and chronic anti-TNF treatment may affect immunoregulator
pathways of these cytokines and may cause formation of psoriasis or psoriasiform lesions (20).
Trachea tissue has been specifically referred to as an "immunoregulator
," functioning to both stimulate the immune system, as well as to repress it, as in instances of an overactive immune response.
For example, when a foreign substance is identified, lymphocytes called macrophages phagocytize the antagonist substances and break them up into fragments which are then exposed at the surface of the macrophage and presented to the immunoregulator
IL-10 acts as an immunoregulator
, inhibiting proinflammatory responses from innate and adaptive immunity and preventing tissue damage due to exacerbated adaptive immune response.
Ohlsson et al., "The new orally active immunoregulator
laquinimod (ABR-215062) effectively inhibits development and relapses of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Regulatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[beta]), were shown to have an important role as an immunoregulator
of the infection caused by P.
Studies with interleukin-10 gene-deficient (IL-[10.sup.-/-]) mice indicate that most of them develop chronic enterocolitis, as IL-10 has been suggested as an essential immunoregulator
in the GIT and is a potent suppressor of macrophage and T-cell functions.
Studies about NSAIDs, well known as immunoregulators
, on lymphocytes, potent immune elements, also showed a different regulation of cytokine production in human IFN-[delta] and IL-2.
Cytokines are immunoregulators
that are important for inflammation, infection, and neoplastic processes.
Numerous studies have identified Tregs as important immunoregulators
in many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions including asthma, multiple esclerosis, and type I diabetes .