Almost all the immunocompetent
patients infected with S.
cinaedi infection can occur in both nosocomial and community-acquired situations and in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent
patients; its manifestations vary quite widely.
In one of the previous study conducted in U.S in 2009, Jones revealed that high risk of infection caused by Toxoplasmosis Gondii was due to the following risk factors: eating raw ground beef, eating locally produced curd, dried, or smoked meat, eating rare lamb, working with meat, drinking unpasteurized goat milk, eating raw oysters, clams, or mussels.6 Previous case reports also mentioned that the prevalence among men is more than women (79% versus 63.4%).4 Clinical manifestation of the disease caused by Toxoplasmosis Gondii relies upon the age and immune status of the patient.7 Immunocompetent
individuals are usually asymptomatic in the acute phase of infection.
Until now, there are limited literatures that reported the imaging appearances of CNS cryptococcal infection among immunocompetent
patients and majority of them are case reports., One study with 19 cases of cryptococcal infection showed that leptomeningitis and intraventricular cystic lesions were more commonly seen than intraparenchymal involvement in immunocompetent
patients. Another similar study with 18 cases found that the parenchymal involvement, meningitis, enlarged Virchow-Robin space and ventricular lesions are equally common among immunocompetent
patients. However, more imaging data should be collected in order to have a detailed discussion on the appearances of CNS cryptococcal infection among immunocompetent
 It has been reported that rarely, immunocompetent
individuals develop mucormycosis after major disasters, burns, and major dirty traumas.
Extrapulmonary TB constitutes 15% of all cases of TB in immunocompetent
individuals, (10) and abdominal TB constitutes 3-4% of the extrapulmonary burden.
They were classified into two groups as immunocompromised and immunocompetent
. An immune compromising condition was defined as any congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, malignancy, receipt of high dose corticosteroids or chemotherapy within 30 days before the onset of varicella, and severe malnutrition.
(ix) The patient was immunocompetent
and investigations for HIV were negative; however, he admitted IV drug abuse, which could be the only risk factor found.
There was no reported history of acute or chronic diarrhea, and he was otherwise immunocompetent
. He had no medical comorbidities, no prior surgeries, no history IV drug use, or other risky behaviors.
Neurotuberculosis without pulmonary involvement is extremely rare and disseminated forms in immunocompetent
patients are equally very infrequent [1,2].
Working with a "lifelike" animal model that is immunocompetent
but shows no response to our tracker molecule was the answer.