immune

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immune

 [ĭ-mūn´]
1. being highly resistant to a disease because of the formation of humoral antibodies or the development of immunologically competent cells, or both, or as a result of some other mechanism, as interferon activities in viral infections.
2. characterized by the development of humoral antibodies or cellular immunity, or both, following antigenic challenge.
3. produced in response to antigenic challenge, as immune serum globulin.
immune response the reaction to and interaction with substances interpreted by the body as not-self, the result being humoral and cellular immunity. Called also immune reaction. The immune response depends on a functioning thymus and the conversion of stem cells to B and T lymphocytes. These lymphocytes contribute to antibody production, cellular immunity, and immunologic memory.
Disorders of the Immune Response. Pathologic conditions associated with an abnormal immune response (immunopathy) may result from (1) immunodepression, that is, an absent or deficient supply of the components of either humoral or cellular immunity, or both; (2) excessive production of gamma globulins; (3) overreaction to antigens of extrinsic origin, that is, antigens from outside the body; and (4) abnormal response of the body to its own cells and tissues.

Those conditions arising from immunosuppression include agammaglobulinemia (absence of gamma globulins) and hypogammaglobulinemia (a decrease of circulating antibodies). Factors that may cause or contribute to suppression of the immune response include (1) congenital absence of the thymus or of the stem cells that are precursors of B and T lymphocytes; (2) malnutrition, in which there is a deficiency of the specific nutrients essential to the life of antibody-synthesizing cells; (3) cancer, viral infections, and extensive burns, all of which overburden the immune response mechanisms and rapidly deplete the supply of antigen-specific antibody; (4) certain drugs, including alcohol and heroin, some antibiotics, antipsychotics, and the antineoplastics used in the treatment of cancer.

Overproduction of gamma globulins is manifested by an excessive proliferation of plasma cells (multiple myeloma). hypersensitivity is the result of an overreaction to substances entering the body. Examples of this kind of inappropriate immune response include hay fever, drug and food allergies, extrinsic asthma, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis.

Autoimmune diseases are manifestations of the body's abnormal response to and inability to tolerate its own cells and tissues. For reasons not yet fully understood, the body fails to interpret its own cells as self and, as it would with other foreign (not-self) substances, utilizes antibodies and immunologically competent cells to destroy and contain them.
immune system a complex system of cellular and molecular components whose primary function is distinguishing self from nonself and defense against foreign organisms or substances; see also immune response. The primary cellular components are lymphocytes and macrophages, and the primary molecular components are antibodies and lymphokines; granulocytes and the complement system are also involved in immune responses but are not always considered part of the immune system per se.
Major organs and tissues of the immune system in the child. From McKinney et al., 2000.
immune complex disease local or systemic disease caused by the formation of circulating antibody-antigen immune complexes and their deposition in tissue, due to activation of complement and to recruitment and activation of leukocytes in type III hypersensitivity reactions.

im·mune

(i-myūn'),
1. Free from the possibility of acquiring a given infectious disease; resistant to an infectious disease.
2. Pertaining to the mechanism of sensitization in which the reactivity is so altered by previous contact with an antigen that the responsive tissues respond quickly on subsequent contact, or to in vitro reactions with antibody-containing serum from such sensitized people.
[L. immunis, free from service, fr. in, neg., + munus (muner-), service]

immune

(ĭ-myo͞on′)
adj.
Immunology
a. Of or relating to immunity or an immune response.
b. Having resistance to a specific pathogen.
c. Having or producing sensitized antibodies or lymphocytes that react to specific antigens: immune serum.

hydrops fetalis

Kernicterus, Rh incompatibility, Rh-induced hemolytic disease of newborn Obstetrics An accumulation of fluid in neonates, resulting in a 'puffy', plethoric or hydropic appearance that may be due to various etiologies Clinical Ascites, edema, ↓ protein or chronic intrauterine anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, jaundice, pallor COD Heart failure. See Hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Hydrops Fetalis, causes
Immune Mother produces IgG antibodies against infant antigen(s), often an RBC antigen, most commonly, anti-RhD, which then passes into the fetal circulation, causing hemolysis
Non-immune Hydrops may result from various etiologies including
•  Fetal origin, eg congenital heart disease (premature foramen ovale closure, large AV septal defect), hematologic (erythroblastosis fetalis, α-thalassemia due to hemoglobin Barts, chronic fetomaternal or twin-twin transfusion), infection (CMV, herpesvirus, rubella, sepsis, toxoplasma), pulmonary (cystic adenomatoid malformation, diaphragmatic hernia, with pulmonary hypoplasia, lymphangiectasia), renal (vein thrombosis, congenital nephrosis) and teratomas, skeletal malformations (achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, fetal neuroblastomatosis, storage disease, meconium peritonitis, idiopathic)
•  Placental Chorangioma, umbilical or chorionic vein thrombosis
 Maternal DM, toxemia  

Immune or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

A blood disease that results in destruction of platelets, which are blood cells involved in clotting.
Mentioned in: Splenectomy

im·mune

(i-myūn')
1. Free from possibility of acquiring a given infectious disease; resistant to an infectious disease.
2. Pertaining to mechanism of sensitization in which the reactivity is so altered by previous contact with an antigen that the responsive tissues respond quickly on subsequent contact.
[L. immunis, free from service, fr. in, neg., + munus (muner-), service]

Patient discussion about immune

Q. Is there a vaccination against hepatitis? I want to volunteer in a charity organization abroad soon, and I heard that currently there’s and outbreak of hepatitis in the town I intend to go to. Is there anything I can do to prevent me from getting hepatitis? Is there a way to get a vaccination against it?

A. before you would like to go on with any vaccination, you should check out this very long list of links:

http://www.aegis.ch/neu/links.html

at the bottom you will also find links in english. vaccinations in general are very disputable/dubious and it is probably time that we learn about it.

Q. Why does the body attack itself in autoimmune diseases? And if it’s possible - How come it doesn’t happen most of the time?

A. Some say cell-wall deficient (CWD) bacteria can live inside your cells (were apparently photographed in immune cells under electron microscope). See www.marshallprotocol.com and autoimmunityresearch.org (run by the autoimmunity research foundation). Also see bacteriality.com. I have been on the MP for just over a year. It has helped a lot of my symptoms, including lowering my TSH (thyroid) from hashimoto's thyroiditis (autoimmune thyroid condition). I hope that my thyroid will eventually regain all of it's function (still taking some thyroid hormone supplement, but less). The MP is not without "side effects," which are said to be from bacterial die-off and cell death when the bacteria are killed. It is experimental and should only be undertaken with that in mind. The marshallprotocol.com website is currently moderated by volunteers. There needs to be more research on CWD bacterial colonies and their possible role in autoimmune diseases. Please mention this to your doctor(s).

More discussions about immune
References in periodicals archive ?
Immune modulators. These drugs, 6-mercaptopurine (Purinethol), azathioprine (Imuran) and methotrexate (Folex PFS, Rheumatrex), suppress the immune system and enable you to be weaned off corticosteroids.
The medication profiles of patients with ulcerative colitis with colectomy were as follows: 37 patients (70%) used aminosalicylates, 47 patients (89%) used steroids, 11 (21%) received immune modulators, and 1 patient (2%) used anti-TNF inhibitors.
By treatment, it is segmented into surgery (liver transplant), vaccines, immune modulator drugs, and antiviral drugs.
Studies from UPMC and the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, in human tumor explants, have demonstrated that Ampligen is a TLR3 restricted and targeted immune modulator that can facilitate the transformation of some "cold" tumor microenvironments into "hot" tumor microenvironments.
SeaWorld San Diego has launched a study to determine whether a natural immune modulator can protect the park's killer whales from infectious disease, thereby decreasing the need for antibiotics.
Immunic's lead program, IMU-838, is an orally available selective immune modulator which inhibits the intracellular metabolism of activated immune cells by blocking the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.
The approved psoriatic arthritis indication for infliximab has been expanded to reflect data showing that the immune modulator has a positive impact on physical function and progression in joint destruction in people with psoriatic arthritis.
The company's clinical development program emphasizes three pillars: chemotherapy combinations to trigger selective tumor lysis; immuno-therapy combinations to produce adaptive immune responses; and immune modulator combinations to facilitate innate immune responses.
But the potential danger entailed in applying a topical immune modulator to skin already predisposed to the development of malignancy because of prior exposure to carcinogenic therapies warrants a conservative approach until the topical immune modulators have a longer safety track record, he added.
Oncolytics' clinical development program emphasises three pillars: chemotherapy combinations to trigger selective tumor lysis; immuno-therapy combinations to produce adaptive immune responses; and immune modulator combinations to facilitate innate immune responses.
1 November 2010 - US Idera Pharmaceuticals Inc (NASDAQ: IDRA) presented Saturday data from a Phase 1 clinical trial evaluating IMO-2125, a novel immune modulator, in null-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
The Inovio/Wistar TB program will also build on recent clinical success by newer genetic immune modulators focused on improved T cell and antibody induction.