Focusing and expanding on Erikson's (1956, 1963) concept of identity crisis, Marcia (1966) outlined four stages of ego identity development: identity achievement, identity diffusion
, identity moratorium, and identity foreclosure.
The three-factor model of the CDS proposed by Kelly and Lee included Identity Diffusion
, Positive Choice Conflict, and Tentative Choice.
Conversely, because vocational identity diffusion
and foreclosure are associated with a lack of internal volition, we anticipated that these statuses would be inversely associated with future time perspective and mindfulness, while being positively associated with present-fatalistic time perspective (Marcia, 1993) and viewing the past in negative terms (Laghi et al.
Marcia (1966) extended Erikson's work regarding the effects of identity diffusion
on identity development in late adolescence.
After the emergence of visual impairment, the previous identity could not be maintained, followed by identity diffusion
, identity exploration, moratorium, and identity achievement.
Moreover, the first generation of migrants suffered from cultural identity diffusion
and "did not aspire to be integrated" (p.
tends to be associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, and drug or alcohol problems (Adams, Munro, Munro, Doherty-Poirer, & Edwards, 2005; Luyckx, Goossens, Soenens, Beyers, & Vansteenkiste, 2005).
This test has 4 series scores which measure four identity statuses: Identity Foreclosure, Identity Diffusion
, Identity Moratorium, and Achievement Identity) and in general, a person has identity score which determines personal identity.
When an individual has not experienced either a crisis nor has he/she committed to a set of values, goals, or beliefs, this individual is in identity diffusion
Therefore the Claim of Arabism by some Sudanese stems from a sense of inferiority and lack of confidence for coming into terms with one's own identity that is referred to as identity diffusion
Multiple regression analyses of survey data from 604 religious adolescents revealed identity moratorium, identity achievement, and doctrinal uncertainties are positive predictors of doubt while identity foreclosure, identity diffusion
, and religious satisfaction are negative predictors.
For Erikson, identity is best characterized on a continuum, with healthy outcomes being represented on one end of the scale by identity achievement (commitment to a self-determined set of identified ideals, goals, and values), and dysfunctional outcomes represented on the opposite end by identity diffusion
(the inability to develop and commit to a set of self-identified ideals (Kroger, 1996; Schwartz, 2001).