Dinofagellate Alexandrium leei (Dinophyceae) from Singapore coastal waters produces a water-soluble ichthyotoxin. Mar.
In addition to PST, several species of Alexandrium are known to produce ichthyotoxins that are noxious to fish and allelochemicals that act as deterrents of planktonic competitors and grazers (Tillmann & John 2002, Fistarol et al.
(1999) Synthesis of epiantillatoxin, a stereoisomer of the potent ichthyotoxin
from Lyngbya majuscula.
Heritol, a novel ichthyotoxin
from the mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis," Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol.
Faunal mortalities by an ichthyotoxin
produced by Chattonella marina bloom have been reported previously .
CTX is reported to be 20 times more effective than brevetoxin as an ichthyotoxin
(0.5 nM vs.
In addition, red tides caused by this species can produce ichthyotoxins
causing deleterious impacts on the marine ecosystem and aquaculture industries and lead consequently to huge economic losses [4-6].
Botana and Alfonso edit this volume on phycotoxins derived from seaweed and algae, with the second edition presenting advances in relevant toxicology and pharmacology and new chapters on ciguatoxins, pinnatoxin, and ichthyotoxins
as well as food safety and nutraceuticals.
carterae Hulburt Produces hemolysins and ichthyotoxins
* Bysmatrum caponii (Horiguchi et Not toxic Pienaar) Faust et Steidinger Cabra cf.
Their bodies are covered by mucus that contains defensive ichthyotoxins
(Smith 1986; Kalmanzon & Zlotkin 2000; Nelson 2006).
Evidence against production of ichthyotoxins
by Pfiesteria shumwayae.
As additional tests, they used genetic analysis techniques to look for evidence of polyketides, which are synthesized by a family of enzymes known as PKSs and are the only group of ichthyotoxins
known to be produced by dinoflagellates.