This pattern of mood states, known as the iceberg profile
, has been recognized to distinguish between successful and less successful sport performances (Beedie et al., 2000), especially among open sports of short duration where participants potentially generate self-referenced performance criteria (Hall & Terry, 1995; Terry, 1995), such as skateboarding.
The results of this study were consistent with previous investigations that have suggested that successful performance is characterized by the iceberg profile
(Furst et al., 1988; Hagberg et al.
When compared to team athletes involved in rugby (Maynard & Howe, 1987), football (Daiss et al., 1986; McGowan & Shultz, 1989; Simpson & Newby, 1994) and college rodeo (Meyers et al., 1988), rock climbers revealed a more pronounced "iceberg profile
" as defined by Morgan (1980).
Psychological characteristics of elite visually impaired athletes: The iceberg profile
. Journal of Sport Behavior, 10, 39-46.
Males demonstrated a tendency to be higher in tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion, total mood disturbance, but lower in vigor than female telemark skiers, although both genders demonstrated the "iceberg profile
" (Morgan, 1980).
Later research by Morgan (1984) identified psychological mood states in athletes and he coined the term "iceberg profile
" to reflect a model of mental health deemed necessary for optimal performance.