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The study of chemistry in relation to physiologic and pathologic processes, and the treatment of disease by chemical substance as practiced by a school of medical thought in the 17th century.
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And Paracelsus' comments on a cure for syphilis point the way toward both chemotherapy and iatrochemistry.
A separate early seventeenth-century strand of medicine, iatrochemistry, did not share what was thought an overly simple mechanical conception of the human body.
Nonetheless, Lindemann does chart a kind of progress: by the end of the eighteenth century "physicians throughout most of Europe had shed the successive skins of Galenism, iatrochemistry, and iatromechanism.
In the medical controversies of the time, Russell clearly favours iatrochemistry over the practices of the Galenic school, as he frequently cites the ideas of Paracelsus and van Helmont and notes that 'every Universal Remedy ha[s] its Root in the first, or second life of Minerals and Metals' (7).
The first was the founder of iatrochemistry (the study of chemistry in relation to pathology, physiology, and medicine), the second an encyclopedic writer who made alchemy central to his thought.
What also emerges as significant in the seventeenth century are the growing influence of Paracelsian medicine and iatrochemistry, and the central place of alchemy in spiritualistic cosmologies embodying ideas of human redemption and eschatology.