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Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows a physician to look through the vagina and neck of the uterus (cervix) to inspect the cavity of the uterus. A telescopelike instrument called a hysteroscope is used. Hysteroscopy is used as both a diagnostic and a treatment tool.


Diagnostic hysteroscopy may be used to evaluate the cause of infertility, to determine the cause of repeated miscarriages, or to help locate polyps and fibroids.
The procedure is also used to treat gynecological conditions, often instead of or in addition to dilatation and curettage (D&C). A D&C is a procedure for scraping the lining of the uterus. A D&C can be used to take a sample of the lining of the uterus for analysis. Hysteroscopy is an advance over D&C because the doctor can take tissue samples of specific areas or actually see fibroids, polyps, or structural abnormalities.
When used for treatment, the hysteroscope is used with other devices to remove polyps, fibroids, or IUDs that have become embedded in the wall of the uterus.


The procedure is not performed on women with cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, or acute pelvic inflammation.


Diagnostic hysteroscopy is performed in either a doctor's office or hospital. Before inserting the hysteroscope, the doctor injects a local anesthetic around the cervix. Once it has taken effect, the doctor dilates the cervix and then inserts a narrow lighted tube (the
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows inspection of the uterus by using a telescope-like instrument called a hysteroscope.
Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows inspection of the uterus by using a telescope-like instrument called a hysteroscope.
(Illustration by Electronic Illustrators Group.)
hysteroscope) through the cervix to reveal the inside of the uterus. Ordinarily, the walls of the uterus are touching each other. In order to get a better view, the uterus is inflated with carbon dioxide gas or fluid. Hysteroscopy takes about 30 minutes, and can cost anywhere from $750 to $4,000 depending on the extent of the procedure.
Treatment involving the use of hysteroscopy is usually performed as a day surgical procedure with regional or general anesthesia. Tiny surgical instruments are inserted through the hysteroscope, and are used to remove polyps or fibroids. A small sample of tissue lining the uterus is often removed for examination, especially if there is any abnormal bleeding.


If the procedure is done in the doctor's office, the patient will be given a mild pain reliever before the procedure to ease cramping. The doctor will wash the vagina and cervix with an antiseptic solution.
If the procedure is done in the hospital under general anesthesia, the patient should not eat or drink anything (not even water) after midnight the night before the procedure.


Many women experience light bleeding for several days after surgical hysteroscopy. Mild cramping or pain is common after operative hysteroscopy, but usually fades away within eight hours. If carbon dioxide gas was used, there may also be some shoulder pain. Nonprescription pain relievers may help ease discomfort. Women may want to take the day off and relax after having hysteroscopy.


Diagnostic hysteroscopy is a fairly safe procedure that only rarely causes complications. The primary risk is prolonged bleeding or infection, usually following surgical hysteroscopy to remove a growth.
Very rare complications include perforation of the uterus, bowel, or bladder. Surgery under general anesthesia causes the additional risks typically associated with anesthesia.
Patients should alert their health care provider if they develop any of these symptoms:
  • abnormal discharge
  • heavy bleeding
  • fever over 101 °F (38.3°C)
  • severe lower abdominal pain

Normal results

A normal, healthy uterus with no fibroids or other growths.

Abnormal results

Using hysteroscopy, the doctor may find uterine fibroids or polyps (often the cause of abnormal bleeding) or a septum (extra fold of tissue down the center of the uterus) that can cause infertility. Sometimes, precancerous or malignant growths are discovered.



Anon. "Looking Inside the Uterus." Harvard Women's Health Watch 4, no. 5 (January 1997): 4-5.

Key terms

Fibroid — A benign tumor of the uterus
Polyp — A growth that projects from the lining of the cervix, the nose, or any other mucus membrane.
Septum — A condition present at birth in which there is an extra fold of tissue down the center of the uterus that can cause infertility. This tissue can be removed with a wire electrode and a hysteroscope.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Visual instrumental inspection of the uterine cavity.
Synonym(s): uteroscopy
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


A procedure, usually performed under general anaesthetic, in which a narrow-bore endoscope is passed into the uterus for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Indications, hysteroscopy
• Identify uterine malformations;
• Biopsy specific sites of haemorrhage.

• Adhesiolysis in Asherman’s syndrome/intrauterine adhesions with microscissors or coagulation;
• Endometrial ablation;
• Evacuate retained products of conception;
• IUD removal;
• Myomectomy;
• Polypectomy (endocervical or endometrial);
• End endometrial or tubal bleeding.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


Gynecology Visualization of the uterine cavity using a hysteroscope to evaluate abnormal uterine bleeding, identify and resect lesions of the endometrial cavity–eg, uterine synechiae and septae, submucosal leiomyomas, endocervical and endometrial polyps, IUDs, and for endometrial ablation Complications Perforation, bleeding, infection
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Visual instrumental inspection of the uterine cavity.
Synonym(s): uteroscopy.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


Direct visual examination of the inside of the womb using an illuminating optical device. Hysteroscopy, which can be done under local anaesthesia, is a valuable diagnostic technique that allows biopsy specimens of the womb lining (endometrium) to be taken from suspicious areas. It has largely replaced D AND C (dilatation and curettage).
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
This study was useful in demonstrating that hysteroscopy is acceptable to patients and no more painful than endometrial biopsy.
Further work-up, such as more comprehensive sampling with hysteroscopy, should be considered in such cases.
In addition, for diagnosing and treating IUAs, hysteroscopy combined with abdominal ultrasonography, can accurately judge the degree and location of IUAs and then allow us to choose the appropriate treatment modality.
According to ANI measurement; dexmedetomidine and remifentanil are both sufficient and efficacious agents for perioperative analgesia in hysteroscopy patients.
The company said the Luminelle DTx Hysteroscopy system went from concept to commercialisation in 25 months and currently about 76% of hysteroscopy procedures take place in the operating room.
Optimal order of successive office hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy for the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized controlled trial.
Hysteroscopy revealed a small uterine cavity deviated to the left side, left ostium was seen but right ostium was not visualised suggestive of left unicornuate uterus.
No complications or uterine rupture were observed in the hysteroscopy. During the 6-month follow-up she could not become pregnant.
Office hysteroscopy was done immediately after menstruation using normal saline as distention media and 5 mm continuous flow sheath with an operative channel for the use of scissors, grasping forceps, or biopsy forceps when necessary.
This procedure is performed within the uterine cavity using operative hysteroscopy [2, 3].