The tympanoplasty reconstructs a middle ear comprising only of the tube and the hypotympanum
with sound protection for the round window.
The variants of the retro- and hypotympanum
: an endoscopic anatomical study.
The other causes of CRI in our study included electrode array extrusion (3 ears) and electrode array malposition (3 ears, 2 in hypotympanum
and 1 in Eustachian tube) as shown in Figure 2.
However, larger lesions that extend into the protympanum or hypotympanum
may require a postauricular approach.
Caption: FIGURE 1: 2008 high-resolution multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) (axial views) showing nonosteolytic nodular tissue mass in the hypotympanum
alongside the promontory.
Another important aspect in achieving optimum coupling is the fixation at the distal end of the FMT in the hypotympanum
. In the first 7 cases of our series, only fascia was used for this purpose.
Extensive bony destruction in the region of the jugular foramen extending intracranially and into the hypotympanum
of the left middle ear was noted (Fig.
The anterior lesion of the hypotympanum
outside the carotid canal had the highest local infiltration of the tumor, and bone erosion suggested that this was the primary site.
* Subsites: (a) Mesotympanum, (b) Protympanum, (c) Hypotympanum
, (d) Retrotympanum, (e) Antrum and (f) Mastoid.
Intraoperatively, a tumor was found to occupy the entire epitympanum and mesotympanum with extension into the hypotympanum
. The mass had encased the entire ossicular chain.
Computed tomography (CT) of temporal bone with 1 mm slice thickness showed a soft tissue mass in the right external auditory canal with bony remodeling, soft tissue in the mesotympanum, hypotympanum
, and middle ear cavity extending into Prussak's space and minimal erosion of the scutum.
The jugular bulb normally lies below the floor of the hypotympanum
of the middle ear.