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Related to hypotropia: hypertropia


deviation of the eye that the patient cannot overcome; the visual axes assume a position relative to each other different from that required by the physiological conditions. Called also squint. adj., adj strabis´mic. The various forms of strabismus are spoken of as tropias, their direction being indicated by the appropriate prefix, as cyclotropia, esotropia, exotropia, hypertropia, and hypotropia.

During the first 3 to 6 months of life, the eyes of infants tend to waver and turn either inward or outward independently of one another; this usually corrects itself. If it persists, or if the eyes are continually crossed in the same way, even if the child is less than 6 months old, it may be a sign of strabismus. Children do not outgrow strabismus. In an older child, a tendency to tilt the head when reading, or to close or rub one eye, may indicate strabismus.

Strabismus almost always appears at an early age. If not corrected, the condition may impair vision in the nonfocusing eye, as well as marring the child's appearance. In the great majority of cases the eyes can be straightened by proper medical treatment at any age, but vision of the malfunctioning eye may remain impaired. If treated early enough, preferably before 6 years, normal vision can usually be restored in the affected eye.
Cause. Strabismus may result from several factors, including a blow on the head, disease, or heredity. Many cases are caused by a malfunction of the muscles that move the eyes. This causes the eyes to focus differently, sending different images to the brain. As the child grows, he or she learns to ignore the image from one eye with the result that it fails to grow as strong as the eye on which he or she is depending.
Treatment. Treatment for strabismus varies with the individual case. A patch may be placed over the child's stronger eye for a period, forcing use of the weaker eye and thus restoring its strength as far as possible, instead of letting it grow worse from lack of use. Eyeglasses or special eye exercises may correct the condition. In some cases, a relatively simple surgical operation on the eye muscles may be necessary. Since these muscles are outside the eye itself, there is no danger to the vision.
comitant strabismus (concomitant strabismus) that in which the angle of deviation of the visual axis of the squinting eye is always the same in relation to the other eye, no matter what the direction of the gaze; due to faulty insertion of the eye muscles.
convergent strabismus esotropia.
divergent strabismus exotropia.
noncomitant strabismus (nonconcomitant strabismus) that in which the amount of deviation of the squinting eye varies according to the direction in which the eyes are turned.
vertical strabismus that in which the visual axis of the squinting eye deviates in the vertical plane; see hypertropia and hypotropia.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


An ocular deviation with one eye lower than the other.
[hypo- + G. tropē, turn]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


An ocular deviation with one eye lower than the other.
[hypo- + G. tropē, turn]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


Strabismus in which one eye is directed to the fixation point while the other is directed upward (right or left hypertropia). If one eye fixates while the other is directed downward, the condition is called hypotropia (right or left hypotropia). Syn. for hypertropia is sursumvergens strabismus and anoopsia; for hypotropia is deorsumvergens strabismus. See three-step test.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
References in periodicals archive ?
If hypotropia persists after IRR, in the presence of the residual SR palsy, IRR needs to be followed by the Knapp procedure.
The group of patients showing the least mean residual hypotropia were also the one treated by IR recession followed by Knapp procedure adjusting for any horizontal deviation.
Presenting ocular symptoms and signs of the patients Signs or symptoms n % Proptosis 7 63.6 Limitation in ocular movement 6 54.5 Diplopia 6 54.5 Hypotropia 4 36.4 Periorbital palpable mass lesion 3 27.3 Visual loss 3 36.4 Ocular pain 2 18.2 Macular pucker 2 18.2 Ptosis 2 18.2 Optic neuropathy 1 9.1 Exotropia 1 9.1
Heavy eye syndrome is an association of anisometropia, usually with high myopia, and hypophoria or hypotropia. The more myopic eye is hypotropic.