XBP-1 is normally kept in its inactive form, but under ERS, the endoRNase domain of IRE-1 splices the mRNA of downstream sensor XBP-1, removing a 26-bp segment from the full-length XBP1 mRNA that generates a translational frameshift, leading to the expression of the active protein XBP-1s.,, XBP-1s binds to intranuclear mRNA directly to regulate protein transcription, thereby affecting subsequent physiological activities., Lee et al .'s study showed for the first time that XBP-1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism, because XBP1 -knockout mice manifested hypotriglyceridemia
It is generally accepted that in rodents a high-fat diet induces hypotriglyceridemia
instead of hypertriglyceridemia .
Indeed, increased whole-body [omega]-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid availability either genetically or through dietary supplementation is associated with hypotriglyceridemia
, improvement in cardiovascular health by diminishing platelet aggregation and thromboxane levels [166, 167], and attenuation of systemic inflammation [168, 169].
This observed effect could be attributed to the hyperactivity of extrahepatic lipoprotein lipase (Yagyu et al., 1999) which mediate lipolysis (Milei et al., 1978) and may, thus, contribute to hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemia
in AJLE-treated rats.
(2008) Acute exercise-induced changes in basal VLDL-triglyceride kinetics leading to hypotriglyceridemia
manifest more readily after resistance than after endurance exercise.
Association of liver steatosis with lipid over-secretion and hypotriglyceridemia
in C57BL/6J mice fed trans-10, cis-12 linoleic acid.
In addition, one should also be aware of the very large known intraindividual variability of TG levels and the many conditions that can result in hypotriglyceridemia