hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis


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hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA),

(hī'pō-thă-lam'ik-pi-tū'i-tār-ē-ad-rē'năl ak'sis),
major component of the stress system consisting of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the adrenal cortices. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin secreted by PVN neurons into the hypophysial portal system stimulate pituitary cells to produce and secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into the general circulation. ACTH then stimulates cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

A tightly-linked, interdependent endocrine unit which, with the systemic sympathetic and adrenomedullary systems, comprises a major peripheral limb of the stress system, the main function of which is to maintain basal and stress-related homeostasis; the hypothalamus and pituitary form the central part of the HPA axis, and are active even at rest, responding to blood-borne or neurosensory signals–eg, cytokines–eg, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α; at the highest level, CRH and noradrenergic neurons innervate and stimulate each other, which is controlled by an autoregulatory, ultrashort negative-feedback loop, in which CRH and noradrenergic collateral fibers inhibit presynaptic CRH and α2-noradrenergic receptors. Cf Hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

hy·po·tha·lam·ic-pi·tu·i·ta·ry-a·dre·nal ax·is

(HPA axis) (hī'pō-thă-lam'ik-pi-tū'i-tar-ē ă-dre'năl ak'sis)
A major component of the stress response system, consisting of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, cortex, and the cortex of the suprarenal gland. The HPA axis regulates secretion of cortisol from the suprarenal gland in response to stress.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, current evidence suggests that every asthmatic child on corticosteroids is at risk of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression (HPAS).
It regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurogenesis.
While exposing the rats to stress, the researchers measured their endocrine response through the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), which is the central stress response system.
This, in turn, leads to an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and dysregulated neural networks, with resultant PPD, Dr.
[22] The adverse relationship between stress and cardiovascular and endocrine function can be explained by changes in the sympathetic-parasympathetic responses, endothelial dysfunction, and hormonal changes induced by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. [23]
NPS has been shown to have several physiological roles; such as sleep regulation, modulation of feeding behavior, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release; extinguishing anxiety and conditioned fear responses (3-5).
Some scientists have asserted that a dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a set of interactions in the body's hormonal system that is activated as a response to stress, could be linked to mental health.
Douglas, "Adaptive responses of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy and lactation," Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol.
Cleare, "Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome," Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol.
McKenna, "The overnight single-dose metyrapone test is a simple and reliable index of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis," Clinical Endocrinology, vol.
Effects of glucocorticoids on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children and adults.
Modulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Early Life Stress Exposure.

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