hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

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hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA),

(hī'pō-thă-lam'ik-pi-tū'i-tār-ē-ad-rē'năl ak'sis),
major component of the stress system consisting of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the adrenal cortices. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin secreted by PVN neurons into the hypophysial portal system stimulate pituitary cells to produce and secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into the general circulation. ACTH then stimulates cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

the combined system of neuroendocrine units that in a negative feedback network regulate the adrenal gland's hormonal activities.

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

A tightly-linked, interdependent endocrine unit which, with the systemic sympathetic and adrenomedullary systems, comprises a major peripheral limb of the stress system, the main function of which is to maintain basal and stress-related homeostasis; the hypothalamus and pituitary form the central part of the HPA axis, and are active even at rest, responding to blood-borne or neurosensory signals–eg, cytokines–eg, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α; at the highest level, CRH and noradrenergic neurons innervate and stimulate each other, which is controlled by an autoregulatory, ultrashort negative-feedback loop, in which CRH and noradrenergic collateral fibers inhibit presynaptic CRH and α2-noradrenergic receptors. Cf Hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

hy·po·tha·lam·ic-pi·tu·i·ta·ry-a·dre·nal ax·is

(HPA axis) (hī'pō-thă-lam'ik-pi-tū'i-tar-ē ă-dre'năl ak'sis)
A major component of the stress response system, consisting of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, cortex, and the cortex of the suprarenal gland. The HPA axis regulates secretion of cortisol from the suprarenal gland in response to stress.
References in periodicals archive ?
Some scientists have asserted that a dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a set of interactions in the body's hormonal system that is activated as a response to stress, could be linked to mental health.
Modulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Early Life Stress Exposure.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness: response to dexamethasone and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
8 ug/dL (<50nmol/L), meaning a subtle anomaly of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and the presence of mild hypocorticism if the adrenal tumour is surgically removed.
However, lack of efficacy and severe adverse effects including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, Cushing syndrome, hyperglycemia, hirsutism, delayed growth, and skin atrophy led the FDA to recommend that Lotrisone not be prescribed for patients younger than 17 years and not be prescribed to treat diaper dermatitis.
Background: The evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in schizophrenia has been reviewed in the context of the stress-diathesis model.
Alcohol self-administration acutely stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but alcohol dependence leads to a dampened neuroendocrine state.
rosea were listed, including effects on key mediators of stress response, regulation of homeostasis of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, modulation of the G-protein coupled receptors and associated signalling pathways, upregulation of neuropeptides, and other molecular networks involved in depression.
Foland-Ross LC, Kircanski K, Gotlib IH (2014) Coping with having a depressed mother: the role of stress and coping in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in girls at familial risk for major depression.
Glucocorticoids exert negative feedback control on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by suppressing corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) production and corticotrophin (ACTH) secretion2,3,4 leading to both adrenal atrophy and loss of cortisol secretion.

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