Another study concluded that a subset of fibromyalgia patients have a dysfunction traceable to the brain's hypothalamic-pituitary axis which manifest as a dysfunction in the production of insulin-like growth factor-1.
 EEG studies have shown its ability to regulate faulty sleep patterns,  and another study has shown its ability to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to increase insulin-like growth factor-1 in older female patients.
Exposure to uncontrollable stress has specific neurochemical and neuroendocrine consequences that include central catecholamine depletion, decreased gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) release, and altered hypothalamic-pituitary axis
function. Such effects are not observed after exposure to identical amounts of controllable stress.
CKs can affect pituitary hormone secretion via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
or autocrine/paracrine regulation.
Thus, the information obtained from these experimental studies suggests that OP exposure alters brain neurotransmitter levels and that the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
is a direct target for OP toxicity in rodents.
"The best data in the literature suggest that severely low BMIs under 20, or under 18, affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
, such that patients have irregular menstrual cycles and, therefore, have an impaired chance of fertility," he told this newspaper.
High FSH levels indicate lack of gonadal function or responsiveness despite a mature hypothalamic-pituitary axis
. The differential diagnoses are gonadal dysgenesis, gonadal failure, and resistant ovary syndrome.
It does, however, require careful evaluation to determine whether the emerging pubertal features reflect a central process driven by hypothalamic and pituitary factors or whether the problem is peripheral, reflecting abnormally elevated sex steroid hormones but no hypothalamic-pituitary axis aberrations.
If the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is "revved"--pubertal--there will be a massive surge in gonadotropin levels following infusion.
Altered reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
in the primary fibromyalgia syndrome.
In contrast, changes in sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
to the feedback actions of gonadal steroids mediate steroid-dependent control of LH release.
Key words: gonadotropin-releasing hormone, hypothalamic-pituitary axis
, lead acetate.