Another pharmacological intervention for athletes suffering from the female athlete triad syndrome and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) causing low bone mineral density is the use of bisphosphonates.
Effects of an oral contraceptive (norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol) on bone mineral density in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and osteopenia: an open-label extension of a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study.
The potential negative effects of hypothalamic amenorrhea, such as bone loss, are best prevented with measures to restore menses, specifically increased caloric intake and decreased exercise
Once that's done, you can make a presumptive diagnosis of hypothalamic amenorrhea and advise the patient to increase caloric intake or decrease energy expenditure to promote the return of normal menses (strength of recommendation: C, expert consensus).
DHEAS levels were normal in women with anorexia nervosa not receiving contraceptives and in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.
Free testosterone levels were found to be predictors of bone mineral density and body composition in women with anorexia nervosa, hypothalamic amenorrhea, and healthy controls.
Free testosterone levels were predictive of bone mineral density and body composition in women with anorexia nervosa, hypothalamic amenorrhea
, and healthy controls.
Ringham and her colleagues had previously demonstrated that women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
are distinguishable from women having as organic cause for their amenorrhea as well as from normally menstruating women on the basis of their high levels of subthreshold symptoms of disordered eating, with dysfunctional attitudes, mild undernutrition, and/or excessive energy output.
She reported on 14 normal-weight women who met stringent criteria for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea
, including an absence of psychiatric conditions, eating disorders, or pituitary tumors.
Patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea
, a disease that was first described in the 1940s and was poorly understood for decades, may finally benefit from a rebirth of investigation leading to rational therapy.
Preclinical studies in monkeys had demonstrated that psychological stress and mild metabolic imbalances act synergistically in inducing functional hypothalamic amenorrhea