Untreated, unrecognized and refractory celiac disease, with symptoms persisting despite adherence to a diet eliminating gluten, leads to serious complications like: neoplasms from the digestive tract (throat cancer, esophagus cancer, small intestine cancer or small intestinal lymphoma), from the hematopoietic system (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, hyposplenism
), from the genitourinary system (infertility, habitual miscarriage, preterm delivery, premature menopause) and from the bones (osteoporosis and osteomalacia) [5, 6].
pneumoniae infection is associated with alcoholism , cigarette smoking, diabetes, chronic organ failure (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/heart failure), influenza infection, hyposplenism
, and age less than 2 or more than 65.
The blood film was otherwise unremarkable; in particular, no evidence for hyposplenism
autosplenectomy and functional hyposplenism
. If episodes of infarction are minimal and there is chronic haemolysis, splenomegaly can be present in such patients.
, as supported by the detection of Howell-Jolly bodies, may have also contributed to the severity of infection, but the cause of hyposplenism
Thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia, IgA deficiency, and hyposplenism
have also been described.
due to a primary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spleen.
: Comparison of different methods for determining splenic function.
polycythaemia vera), various malignancies and hyposplenism
Increased susceptibility to infection in SCD patients may be due to a number of predisposing factors, including functional asplenia (hyposplenism
), impaired complement activity, zinc deficiency, iron overload and the presence of necrotic tissue.
Chronic complications of untreated CD include lymphoma and adenocarcinomas of the jejunum, recurrent miscarriages, neurologic disorders, osteoporosis, and hyposplenism
was assessed by abdominal ultrasound and peripheral blood smear findings, osteoporosis was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular complications were assessed by echocardiogram and multi-gated acquisition scan, hepatitis C virus infection was determined by detection of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies and hepatitis C virus RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and renal impairment was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance.