Therefore, the goal of rhGH therapy in children with PWS is different from that in other states of hyposomatotropism
. Its aim is not only to increase the growth rate and final height, but also to improve body composition and increase body activity, thereby ultimately contributing to obesity prevention.
Hyposomatotropism was defined as insulin growth factor (IGF-1) level below the lower limit of normality established for age and gender.
The hormonal deficiencies were analyzed at the moment of the diagnosis and in the last check-up, and this analysis found the following proportions: for hypothyroidism, 86.7% versus 92% (p = 0.001); for hypocortisolism, 62% versus 78% (p = 0.001); for hypogonadism, 67% versus 76% (p = 0.001); for hyposomatotropism, 89% versus 94% (p = 0.002); and for panhypopituitarism, 67.8% versus 78% (p = 0.001) (Table 1).
The growth hormone was never replaced in patients with hyposomatotropism.
There was no difference in the presence of MetS between patients with hyposomatotropism and patients without hyposomatotropism (41% versus 44%, p = 0.68).
Lizarralde, "Dual defects in pulsatile growth hormone secretion and clearance subserve the hyposomatotropism
of obesity in man," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
using this method performed an assessment of bone age, bone mineralization and bone measurements in children with hyposomatotropism
, hypocalcaemia in Williams syndrome and infant idiopathic hypercalcemia, celiac disease, in liver diseases [3, 4].
Topics include: hypoadrenocorticism in dogs and other species, primary functioning adrenal tumors producing signs similar to hyperadrenocorticism including atypical syndromes in cats, diabetes mellitus in dogs and other species, insulinoma, hypothyroidism, hyposomatotropism
, acromegaly, estrogen- and androgen-related disorders, and adrenal dysfunction and sex hormones.
Because growth hormone deficiency  and normal ageing  are both associated with decreases in bone mass, it is tempting to speculate that geriatric hyposomatotropism
might account, at least partially, for the age-related increase in bone fragility.
Obesity is characterized by hyposomatotropism, as documented by reduced GH responses to physiological and pharmacological stimuli, being serum IGF-1 levels generally normal-to-high .
Although the state of hyposomatotropism may be present in either obesity or FM, to our best knowledge, no study has evaluated the somatotropic function in severely obese patients suffering from FM so far.
Our results (i.e., the prevalence of low IGF-1 levels and the rate of GHD in patients with both FM and obesity) are slightly lower than or similar to those obtained in fibromyalgic patients with lower BMI (i.e., lean, overweight, and moderately obese subjects), thus suggesting that the there is no "additive" effect between the hyposomatotropism present in obesity and the somatotropic dysfunction in FM.