hypophysitis

hy·poph·y·si·tis

(hī-pof'i-sī'tis),
Inflammation of the hypophysis.

hy·poph·y·si·tis

(hī-pof'i-sī'tis)
Inflammation of the hypophysis.

hypophysitis

(hi-pof?i-sit'is) [ hypophysis, + -itis]
Inflammation of the pituitary gland.

autoimmune hypophysitis

Lymphocytic hypophysitis.

lymphocytic hypophysitis

A relatively rare autoimmune disease in which the pituitary gland is infiltrated and damaged by lymphocytes, esp. during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Imaging studies of the pituitary gland show massive enlargement.. Imaging studies of the pituitary gland show massive enlargement. Hormone deficiencies, or in some cases, hyperprolactinemia, can occur.
Synonym: autoimmune hypophysitis
References in periodicals archive ?
Rarely, infiltrative processes such as lymphocytic hypophysitis, sarcoidosis and hemochromatosis cause hypopituitarism.4
The commonest pituitary lesion was Prolactinoma in 26 (26.8%) patients, followed by Sheehan's syndrome in 13 (13.4%) patients, Acromegaly in 12 (12.4%), non-secretory pituitary adenoma in 12 (12.3%), Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 10 (10.3%) and Craniopharyngioma in 7 (7.2%) patients, while miscellaneous disorders including Pan hypopituitarism, Cushing's disease, Empty sella syndrome, Ectopic Cushing's, Diabetes Insipidus, Autoimmune hypophysitis, TSHoma and Suprasellar mass etc.
The initial treatment of prolactin-secreting adenomas was dopaminergic agonists, rather than neurosurgery.[6] Adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenomas accounted for approximately 12.28% of all pituitary adenomas in the CPDRN, which is higher than the 1-7% reported in Finland; this outcome is related to PUMCH's expertise in Cushing's disease, which affects patients' choice of hospital.[6] Craniopharyngioma (95, 0.66%), Rathke's clef cysts (74, 0.51%), hypophysitis (6, 0.04%), germinoma (3, 0.02%), pituitary carcinoma (44, 0.31%), and diabetes insipidus (1, 0.01%) were in the minority diagnoses, while no cases of histiocytosis have been entered in the registry [Table 1].{Table 1}
Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder associated with diffuse enlargement and dysfunction of the pituitary gland, with estimated prevalence of 0.88% (1).
MELANOMA PATIENTS who took high doses of glucocorticoids for hypophysitis induced by the checkpoint-inhibitor ipilimumab (Yervoy) had a lower overall survival time and a shorter time to treatment failure than did patients taking low-dose steroids for the adverse event, according to a new retrospective analysis in Cancer.
Therefore, IgG4-related hypophysitis can result in hormone deficiencies from both the anterior and posterior pituitary (68).
The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 1% of patients were diarrhea, pneumonitis, hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency, colitis, hyponatremia, increased ALT, pyrexia and nausea.
Common clinical conditions associated with IgG4-RD include dacryoadenitis, myositis, inflammatory orbital disorders, orbital pseudotumor, hypophysitis, meningitis, and the involvement of one or more cranial nerves.
Diseases such as Riedel thyroiditis, Mikulicz disease, Kuttner tumor, idiopathic orbital inflammation (inflammatory pseudotumor), orbital lymphoid hyperplasia, and pituitary hypophysitis are examples of some of the previously classified diseases that have been added to the spectrum of IgG4-RD (3).
Recently, hypophyseal involvement in IgG4-RD has been reported and has been added to the IgG4-RD spectrum, and it has also been well recognized as IgG4-related hypophysitis (IgG4-RH).
The most frequent immunologic side effects were hypothyroidism, pneumonitis, and hyperthyroidism, followed by less common side effect such as colitis, hypophysitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and infusion-related reactions.
tuberculosis, fungal infection, human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus) (viii) Triple A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome (alacrimia, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency) (ix) Adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH due to gene mutations (x) Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (xi) Drug effects (mitotane, ketoconazole, aminoglutethimide, metyrapone, megestrol, rifampin) SECONDARY (CENTRAL) (i) Congenital (a) Septo-optic dysplasia (b) Pituitary aplasia/hypoplasia (c) Agenesis of corticotrophs (d) POMC (ii) Acquired (a) Trauma (b) Brain tumor (craniopharyngioma) (c) Lymphocytic hypophysitis (d) Surgery (e) Cranial irradiation (f) Infiltrative disease (hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis) (g) Steroid withdrawal after prolonged administration