It has been reported that adverse effects occurred in 34%75% of the patients who were treated with BoNT-A, and the most common adverse effects were dysphagia, weakness in cervical muscles, hypophonia
, dry mouth, and atrophy of muscles (26,28).
Symptoms such as shuffling gait, loss of dexterity, festination, freezing of gait, hypophonia
and loss of articulation, and falls because of loss of postural reflexes.
is a symptom of PD, and at times it became difficult to hear participants and therefore direct the assessments across the Internet link.
It can include micrographia, hypomimia, hypophonia
as well as decreased blink rate.
During hospital day 1, the patient experienced hypophonia
, complete ophthalmoplegia, bilateral ptosis (right more than left), pupils unresponsive to light, dysphagia, and bilateral limb-girdle muscular weakness.
The Mn-exposed workers exhibited gait disturbance, a propensity to fall, masked face, hypophonia
and dysphonia, and drooling.
Table 2: Clinical Manifestations * Poverty of movement * Fatigue * Gait impairments * Mask-like facial expression * Dsyphagia * Dysarthria, hypophonia
, mutism * Autonomic nervous system dysfunction * Visual deficits * Mental status changes * Perceptual motor deficits * Sensory loss Sources: 1) O'Sullivan, S.
A 72-year-old with five-year history of progressive supranuclear palsy complained of symptoms including decreased leg strength, balance problems, trouble swallowing liquids, hypophonia
and unclear speech, and abnormal vertical gaze.
Speech disturbances such as dysarthria and hypophonia
, no aphasia.
The most common side effects are a short period, usually 1 to 2 weeks, of breathiness or hypophonia
, dysphagia, choking, pain at the injection site, and edema of the vocal folds if too much volume is injected.
In February 1999, 3 months later and almost 2 years after diagnosis, Maura presented again with a 15-1b weight loss, gait imbalance, bradykinesia, hypophonia
, and a depressed affect.
Mild to moderate dysarthria, hypophonia
with a monotone voice, and hypomimia were observed.