Mohite RV1 et al (7) studied Out of 230 girls with attainment of menstruation, frequency and percentages of common menstrual problems like oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, hypomenorrhea
, dysmenorrhea and premen- strual syndrome were 37(16.08%), 41(17.82%), 63(27.39%), 137(59.56%), 113(49.13%) and 107(46.52%) respectively
Out of the total 21 cases with hypomenorrhea
, 12 cases (57.1%) started having normal menstrual flow following surgery.
Gastrointestinal discomfort (5.4%) and hypomenorrhea
(8.1%) were observed, but no severe complications were found.
Menstrual irregularities refer to any kind of changes occurring in amount or duration of bleeding in normal menstrual cycle which includes menorrhagia (menstruation >7 days), hypomenorrhea
(menstruation <3 days), polymenorrhea (menstrual interval <21 days), oligomenorrhea (menstrual interval >35 days), dysmenorrhea (severe abdominal pain and unable to carry out daily routine activities), metrorrhagia (spotting between menstrual cycle), and amenorrhea (menstrual interval >3 months).
ORs for hypomenorrhea
and menorrhagia were also calculated in multinomial logistic regression model using normal volume as the control.
Endometrial pattern in relation to menstrual pattern Preoperative Preoperative endometrial pattern menstrual pattern Normal Thin Irregular Amenorrhea 0(0) 9(25.7) 4(40) Hypomenorrhea
0(0) 21(60.0) 6(60) Normal 3(100) 5(14.3) 0 Total 3(100) 35(100) 10(100) Preoperative Preoperative endometrial pattern menstrual pattern Fluid Total Amenorrhea 3(25) 16(26.7) Hypomenorrhea
5(41.7) 32(53.3) Normal 4(33.3) 12(20) Total 12(100) 60 Number in parenthesis represents percentage Table 4.
The importance of amenorrhea in reducing the postoperative recurrence of endometriosis and symptoms has been underscored by two important studies that evaluated the role of postoperative endometrial ablation or postoperative insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena), neither of which suppresses ovulation but both of which induce a state of hypomenorrhea
Amenorrhea or hypomenorrhea
was reported in 65% of women in the LNG-IUS group vs 71% of those in the resection group.
Oligomenorrhea or hypomenorrhea
, three to six menstrual cycles per year that are 36 days or longer, also increases the risk for premature osteoporosis and stress fractures.
UAE can contribute to hypomenorrhea
secondary to uterine and endometrial necrosis.
IUA refers to the destruction of the basal layer of the endometrium and is attributed to multiple causes. These lead to adhesion between the uterine walls, which in turn results in clinical manifestations, such as amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea
, pelvic pain, infertility, and habitual abortion., IUAs generally occur after curettage and various forms of hysteroscopic surgery, including hysteroscopic resection of multiple fibroids and resection of the septa. The primary causes of IUA include trauma to the basal layer of the endometrium and uterine infections.
of Girls % Dysmenorrhea 186 18.6 Oligomenorrhea 32 3.2 Polymenorrhea 43 4.3 Hypomenorrhea
12 1.2 Menorrhagia 6 0.6 Amenorrhea 2 0.2 Puberty menorrhagia 2 0.2 Total 1000 100 Table 5: Knowledge and Impact of menstruation on young girls Knowledge of Menstruation No.