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a pathological condition resulting from the accumulation of base or the loss of acid from the body, associated with a low level of serum potassium. The retention of alkali or the loss of acid occurs primarily in extracellular fluid, but the pH of intracellular fluid may also be subnormal. See also hypokalemia.
Metabolic alkalosis associated with an excessive loss of potassium. It may be caused by diuretic therapy.
See also: alkalosis
a pathological condition resulting from accumulation of base, or from loss of acid without comparable loss of base in the body fluids, and characterized by decrease in hydrogen ion concentration (increase in pH). Alkalosis is the opposite of acidosis. See also acid-base balance.
a condition in which compensatory mechanisms have returned the pH toward normal.
associated with deficit in free body water, hypotonic fluid losses or increased sodium levels.
alkalosis due to loss of gastric fluid because of persistent vomiting. See also hypochloremic alkalosis (below).
a metabolic alkalosis in which gastric losses of chloride are disproportionately greater than sodium loss because of corresponding increase in potassium loss.
a metabolic alkalosis associated with a low serum potassium level; retention of alkali or loss of acid occurs in the extracellular (but not intracellular) fluid compartment; although the pH of the intracellular fluid may be below normal.
a disturbance in which the acid-base status shifts toward the alkaline because of uncompensated loss of acids, ingestion or retention of excess base, or potassium depletion. The condition can occur with vomiting or accompany treatment with diuretics.
reduced carbon dioxide tension in the extracellular fluid caused by excessive excretion of carbon dioxide through the lungs (hyperventilation). Conditions commonly associated with respiratory alkalosis include pain, hypoxia, fever, high environmental temperature, poisoning, early pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and central nervous system disease.