hypoglycaemia


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hypoglycaemia

Fringe medicine
A condition defined by promoters of fringe healthcare products that is said to affect 10 to 25% of the US population and cause chronic fatigue, criminal behaviour, depression, drug addiction, mental disorders (including schizophrenia), sexual impotence and a wide range of other conditions. 

Mainstream medicine
A clinically uncommon condition which should be diagnosed only in the context of a legitimate endocrine disorder by a mainstream physician.

hy·po·gly·ce·mi·a

(hī'pō-glī-sē'mē-ă)
An abnormally low concentration of glucose in the circulating blood.
Synonym(s): hypoglycaemia.

hypoglycaemia

Abnormally low levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood, such as an arterial plasma concentration of less than 3.0 mmol/litre. Hypoglycaemia is dangerous as the brain is critically dependent on glucose and is rapidly damaged if this fuel is absent. Hypoglycaemia causes trembling, faintness, sweating, palpitations, mental confusion, slurred speech, headache, loss of memory, double vision, fits, coma and death. Behaviour is often irrational and disorderly and may simulate drunkenness. The commonest cause is an overdose of insulin in a diabetic. Diabetics are advised always to carry sugar lumps or glucose sweets for use as an emergency treatment of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia other than that due to insulin overdosage is uncommon, but may have many causes, including beta blockers, alcohol, unripe ackee nuts, liver disease, congestive heart failure, inborn errors of metabolism, sepsis, starvation and various other prescription drugs.

hypoglycaemia

abnormally low blood glucose concentration. May be a consequence of severe fasting, but can occur in healthy well-fed people during the late stages of endurance exercise, particularly when consumption of carbohydrate drinks is neglected or, paradoxically, when a one-off intake of glucose elicits an insulin surge. Diabetics are at risk of hypoglycaemia from insulin overdose or during exercise (which lowers blood glucose) unless special care is taken with blood sugar control. Blood glucose may also be low following alcohol ingestion with inadequate food intake. Acute severe hypoglycaemia can result in coma, convulsions and brain damage. See also diabetes.

hypoglycaemia

abnormally low concentration of glucose in circulating blood (i.e. <2.9 mmol/L); induced in diabetics by mismatch of administered insulin and food intake in relation to exercise levels; symptoms (triggered by low cerebral glucose levels and reflex autonomic nervous system stimulation) include warning signs (e.g. appearing drunk, slurring speech, poor concentration, behavioural truculence, feeling faint/light-headed, trembling, oral paraesthesia, inappropriate sweating) or rapid progression to coma; treated by administration of oral glucose (10 g sugar in water), intravenous glucose solution or intramuscular injection of 1 mg glucagon

hy·po·gly·ce·mi·a

(hī'pō-glī-sē'mē-ă)
Symptoms resulting from low blood glucose (normal glucose range 60-100 mg/dL [3.3-5.6 mmol/L]), which are either autonomic or neuroglycopenic.
Synonym(s): glucopenia, hypoglycaemia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Insulin detemir is associated with more predictable glycaemic control and lower risk of hypoglycaemia compared to NPH in subjects with type 1 diabetes on a basal-bolus regimen with premeal insulin aspart.
Persons at risk of hypoglycaemia need to anticipate and suspect hypoglycaemic episodes, so that preventive and immediate corrective measures can be done.
Regarding hypoglycaemic episodes, 44% of the elderly diabetics had hypoglycaemia as compared to 14% in those below 50 years.
After a review of evidence, the European Commission has said that the driving ban for people experiencing recurrent severe hypoglycaemia when asleep should be lifted.
This was achieved at an increased risk of hypoglycaemia and greater weight gain than in the conventionally treated group (Table 2).
This was, however, a small study, investigating whether dogs could detect hypoglycaemia scent on the skin from samples obtained from participants who were not known to the dogs.
Following hypoglycaemia, insulintreated patients with diabetes had an approximately 60 percent higher risk of cardiovascular events, and were twice as likely to die over the same period as patients who did not experience hypoglycaemia, the findings showed.
Professors Kamlesh Khunti and Melanie Davies, scientists from the University of Leicester's Diabetes Research Centre, have confirmed an association between hypoglycaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in insulin-treated patients with diabetes, which could lead to changes in the way some patients' treatment is managed.
Heptares, in partnership with the University of Manchester and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, will then conduct the preclinical development of candidates with the aim of providing novel safe, effective and orally available molecules for clinical studies for congenital hyperinsulinism with anticipated additional potential in other areas associated with intractable hypoglycaemia; including neonatal hypoglycaemia, hypoglycaemia occurring as a consequence of gastric bypass surgery and insulinoma-associated hypoglycaemia.
7] Therefore, in sick children presenting to the emergency room, reliance on clinical manifestations to detect hypoglycaemia may result in missed diagnosis with attendant increase in the risk of complications of hypoglycaemia.
Hypoglycaemia typically occurs within the first 3 days of fluoroquinolones therapy and has been reported after the first dose of either intravenous or oral administration.
At the same time it is known that severe hypoglycaemia is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetics, although the association is controversial and the possible effects of co-morbidity have not been fully investigated.