Then the nerve passed over the medial surface of middle part of the internal carotid and the occipital arteries and the hypoglossal nerve
joined the rostroventral end of the CCG (Figs.
Growth of the hypoglossal canals in the human lineage may have accompanied a thickening of the hypoglossal nerve
to coordinate tongue movements needed for speaking, Kay's group theorized.
At that time, the initial examination revealed no paralysis of the facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, or hypoglossal nerves
FOURTH BRANCHIAL ANOMALY: The theoretic course of a fourth branchial anomaly is similar to a third except it passes under the superior laryngeal nerve but over the recurrent laryngeal and hypoglossal nerves
. It then dips back into the chest to pass around the aortic arch on the left and the subclavian artery on the right.
The other patient presented with dysphagia secondary to hypoglossal nerve
A suprahyoid neck dissection was done under general anaesthesia with preservation of marginal mandibular, lingual and hypoglossal nerves
. No cervical lymphadenopathy was detected during dissection as well.
In 1906, Spanish otorhinolaryngologist Antonio Garcia Tapia became the first to describe a lesion of the vagus and hypoglossal nerves
with contralateral hemiplegia.
Medially, it is related to the lingual and hypoglossal nerves
as they lie on the hyoglossus muscle.
The patient was advised that sacrifice of the lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves
bilaterally might be required in order to achieve complete tumor resection, and consent was obtained for possible total glossectomy.
Although this affords wide access to the clivus and upper cervical spine, it poses a risk to the lingual and hypoglossal nerves
.  Moreover, oral intake is delayed for up to 1 week after surgery.