Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal
To a somewhat constant degree throughout the genus, these traits are also associated with hypogeal
Key words: Imperial Roman; Amrit; hypogeal tomb; al-Bayada; burial practice; inhumation.
Thus, studies have been conducted in this settlement from the beginning of the nineteenth century (Renan, 1864) and numerous marble sarcophagi have been documented in hypogeal tombs (Elayi and Haykal, 1996: 74; Mustafa, 2013: 112; Herniary and Mertens, 2014: 374), typical of this region.
On 14 April 1990, 616 seedlings of Florigraze were identified visually, verified by the presence of hypogeal
cotyledons, uprooted, transplanted into 10- by 10- by 10-cm pots and maintained outside in a semi-shaded location.
Type of seedling emergence in which the cotyledons remain beneath the soil surface and the epicotyl emerges from the soil.
The hypogeal environment, both under ground and under water, does not present insurmountable difficulties for the establishment of life.
This led to the formulation of the classic paradigm about the nature of the hypogeal ecosystem and its inhabitants, the troglobionts, as a stable, nutrient-poor, isolated environment showing little diversity, with an ancient population largely consisting of species with convergent, and rather weird, adaptive morphology: relict species or living fossils that had sheltered from past climatic adversities in caves.
There are several germination patterns: epigeal (above ground), hypogeal
(below ground), immediate (true leaf appears several weeks after seed is sown), and delayed (true leaf appears after several months to a year).
Clonal growth is of the phalanx type (Hutchings & Bradbury 1986) where modules (epigeal shoots arising from underground hypogeal
rhizome) do not separate themselves from the parent shoot.
This has converted them, in temperate regions, into refuges for hypogeal
fauna, which was abundant in the outside world in periods of hotter and more humid climates.
Whereas Asiatic lily seed is epigeal (putting up a leaf above ground right away and then forming the bulblet), seeds of martagons and some other species germinate in a hypogeal