For women with hypoestrogenism
, primary ovarian insufficiency, or premature surgical menopause without contraindications, HT is recommended until at least the median age of menopause (52 years), as studies suggest that benefits outweigh the risks for effects on bone, heart, cognition, GSM, sexual function, and mood.
SUMMARY--Primary premature ovarian insufficiency (PPOI) is characterized by hypergonadotropic amenorrhea and hypoestrogenism
in women under 40 years of age.
In that study, 29 premenopausal women, aged 18-45 years, received a single dose of the GnRH agonist leuprolide in order to induce hypoestrogenism
and ovarian suppression for the study period.
resulting from menopause is mentioned as the main cause of obesity, vasomotor, urogenital and psychological symptoms, as well as for poorer sexual performance and the high profile or morbimortality in women after the age of 50, when associated with environmental, psychosocial and cultural factors (7).
Comment: As menopause marches on and hypoestrogenism
continues, manifestations include skin dryness, skin atrophic changes, skin aging, fragile skin, and wrinkles and furrows.
The effects of hypoestrogenism
on the vaginal wall: Interference with the normal sexual response.
Genital atrophy and hypoestrogenism
also contribute in the pathogenesis of prolapse.
Since these women undergo surgical menopause as opposed to natural menopause, they have an abrupt loss in hormones, and because of their younger age at the time of surgery, they may also have a longer exposure period to the detrimental effects of hypoestrogenism
This US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Estradiol Transdermal System is indicated for treating moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause; hypoestrogenism
due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure; and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
The low estrogen concentrations observed in this case narrowed the differential to hypoestrogenism
13,15) FHA is associated with increased exercise and weight loss resulting in hypoestrogenism
, ultimately resulting in a failure to obtain peak bone mass.
Indeed the other effect of hypoestrogenism
seen in amenorrheic athletes is impaired endothelium dependent arterial vasodilation , which decreases the perfusion of working muscle, impaired skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism  and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [5,6].