Subsequent studies reported positive effects of thoracic epidural anaesthesia on pulmonary endothelial capillary integrity in septic rats in the hyperdynamic phase, modulating the production of nitric oxide (effects not found in rats with sepsis in the hypodynamic
Several clinical features of human sepsis are used to validate the relevance of animal models, which include two distinct periods: the hyperdynamic phase and hypodynamic
In the present study, only Simpson's method exhibited adequate agreement with TD in the hypodynamic
During early years, mephentermine was reported to be as potent as ephedrine with respect to its effect on total vascular and venous resistance in the perfused foreleg of the dog (13), whereas it was found to be more potent than other agents including ephedrine for restoring the contractility of depressed and hypodynamic
isolated frog heart (14).
Hypothyroidism often involves hypertension due to increased systemic vascular resistance, high cholesterol due to reduced hepatic clearance of LDL cholesterol, and renal insufficiency, presumably due to a hypodynamic
circulation, they said.
The left vocal fold was hypodynamic
in the middle third of the musculomembranous portion.
Previous studies [14-16] showed that HS patients may present with hyperdynamic or hypodynamic
state, the latter group presenting with circulatory failure and having a poorer outcome.
For severe cases of hypothermia, or for conditions involving hypodynamic
compromise, which is induced diminished cardiac output, more severe measures are taken.
The decision to analyze samples after 24 and 48 h reflects the evidence that clinical and laboratory signs of sepsis become more conspicuous at 24h [13, 30], going from a hyperdynamic state (after 12 h) to a progressive hypodynamic
phase (after 16-24 h) or late stage (48 h) [30, 43-45].
5 Female sex 5 Organ failure 7 Malignancy 4 Preoperative duration 4 of peritonitis >24 h Origin of sepsis not colonic 4 Diffuse generalized peritonitis 6 Exudates Clear 0 Cloudy, purulent 6 Faecal 12 Definitions of organ failure Kidney Creatinine level >177 umol/L Urea >167 mmol/L Oliguria <20 mL/h Lung P[O.sub.2] <50 mmHg PC[O.sub.2]>50 mmHg Shock Hypodynamic
or hyperdynamic Intestinal obstruction Paralysis >24 h.
, who reported that cardiac contractility and structure are not significantly compromised even during the late, hypodynamic
stage of sepsis.
To avoid the confounding effect of hypodynamic
septic shock, a protocol of fluid resuscitation was applied to maintain adequate filling pressure.