hypodermis


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sub·cu·ta·ne·ous tis·sue

[TA]
an irregular layer of adipose and connective tissue, stroma, or membrane immediately deep to the skin and superficial to the deep fascia, usually consisting primarily of either just loose connective tissue [TA] (textus connectivus laxus [TA]), or a fatty layer [TA] (panniculus adiposus [TA]) that may also include a muscle layer [TA] (stratum musculosum [TA]), and/or a fibrous layer [TA] (stratum fibrosum [TA]}; it may occur as a membranous layer [TA] (stratum membranosum [TA]) only, being nearly devoid of fat (as in the auricles, eyelids, scrotum, and penis); it is penetrated by, and gains support from, skin ligaments [TA] (retinacula cutis [TA]) extending between the dermis and the deep fascia; cutaneous nerves and superficial vessels course within the subcutaneous tissue, with only their terminal branches passing to the skin; of the body's coverings, this layer varies most between sexes and in different nutritional states. Terminologia Anatomica [TA] has recommended that the terms "superficial fascia" and "deep fascia" not be used generically in an unqualified way because of variation in their meanings internationally. The recommended terms are "subcutaneous tissue [TA] (tela subcutanea)" for the former superficial fascia, and "muscular fascia" or ("visceral fasci viscera[is]") in place of deep fascia.

hypodermis

(hī′pə-dûr′mĭs) also

hypoderm

(hī′pə-dûrm′)
n.
1. An epidermal layer of cells that secretes an overlying chitinous cuticle, as in arthropods.
2. Botany A layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis.
3. Anatomy A subcutaneous layer of loose connective tissue containing a varying number of fat cells.

su·per·fi·cial fas·ci·a

(sū'pĕr-fish'ăl fash'ē-ă)
A loose, fibrous envelope beneath the skin, containing fat in its meshes (panniculus adiposus) or fasciculi of muscular tissue (panniculus carnosus); it contains the cutaneous vessels and nerves and is in relation by its undersurface with the deep fascia.
Synonym(s): hypodermis, tela subcutanea.

hypodermis

the layer of cells immediately under the epidermis of plant leaves. The layer is sometimes used for water storage or for mechanical strengthening for extra protection.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands are specialized epidermal structures located in the reticular dermis and hypodermis. Hair follicles are composed of different concentric cell layers.
Baruch and Merida (1995), analyzing the Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) Stapf, classified the first layers of the cortex as hypodermis, further stating that probably the wall thickness of some layers occurs by accumulation of suberin and lignin.
The lower area of the deep reticular dermis and the hypodermis maintained structural integrity (Figure 4(d)).
It has three layers: (i) the epidermis, the outermost layer containing predominantly keratinocytes and, to a lesser extent, melanocytes, [CD8.sup.+] T cells, and Langerhans cells with a simple cell composition; (ii) the dermis, the intermediate layer with greater cell diversity--dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, [CD4.sup.+] T cells, innate lymphoid cells, fibroblasts, and so forth--and with lymphatic and blood vessels which allow cell migration traffic [50]; and (iii) the hypodermis, the innermost layer, composed mainly of adipocytes, which ensures thermoregulation.
Using this methodology, light is highly scattered by the complex structure of the skin and its main layers (epidermis (blood-free layer), dermis (vascularised layer with dense irregular connective tissue with collagenous fibers), and hypodermis (subcutaneous adipose tissue layer composed of two sublayers separated by thin connective tissue)) [4, 17, 18].
Calcinosis cutis is characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium salts in the dermis and/or hypodermis. It often presents as multiple hard pale plaques, nodules, or papules; however, it can present as a singular lesion also [4, 5].
The volume densities (the fraction of the tissue which was occupied by the favoured structure)--of parts including epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, collagen bundles, and vessels--were estimated using the point-counting method.
Such aging-delaying accumulation of TAGs has been reported under the following conditions: (1) upon entry into dauer, due to an LKB1/AMPK- (liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase-) driven inhibition of TAG lipolysis in the adipose-like hypodermis tissue [87]; and (2) in response to nutrient-rich food, due to a mutation in the Rictor protein component of TORC2 [88].
The MCs of the skin lie in the dermis and the hypodermis, where they are grouped around blood vessels and nerves.
However, most of the thickness of hagfish skin is comprised of the fatty subdermis (or hypodermis).
It exerts multiple vital protective functions against environmental aggressions, rendered possible due to an elaborate structure, associating various tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin, arranged in three layers, including (from top to bottom) the epidermis (and its appendages), the dermis, and the hypodermis. Skin acts as an immune network and through its pigments provides a unique defense against UV radiation.
Essential oil is located in the hypodermis in large thin-walled cells at the periphery of roots and rhizomes.